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Package storage provides an easy way to work with Google Cloud Storage. Google Cloud Storage stores data in named objects, which are grouped into buckets. More information about Google Cloud Storage is available at See for authentication, timeouts, connection pooling and similar aspects of this package. To start working with this package, create a Client: The client will use your default application credentials. Clients should be reused instead of created as needed. The methods of Client are safe for concurrent use by multiple goroutines. You may configure the client by passing in options from the package. You may also use options defined in this package, such as WithJSONReads. If you only wish to access public data, you can create an unauthenticated client with To use an emulator with this library, you can set the STORAGE_EMULATOR_HOST environment variable to the address at which your emulator is running. This will send requests to that address instead of to Cloud Storage. You can then create and use a client as usual: Please note that there is no official emulator for Cloud Storage. A Google Cloud Storage bucket is a collection of objects. To work with a bucket, make a bucket handle: A handle is a reference to a bucket. You can have a handle even if the bucket doesn't exist yet. To create a bucket in Google Cloud Storage, call BucketHandle.Create: Note that although buckets are associated with projects, bucket names are global across all projects. Each bucket has associated metadata, represented in this package by BucketAttrs. The third argument to BucketHandle.Create allows you to set the initial BucketAttrs of a bucket. To retrieve a bucket's attributes, use BucketHandle.Attrs: An object holds arbitrary data as a sequence of bytes, like a file. You refer to objects using a handle, just as with buckets, but unlike buckets you don't explicitly create an object. Instead, the first time you write to an object it will be created. You can use the standard Go io.Reader and io.Writer interfaces to read and write object data: Objects also have attributes, which you can fetch with ObjectHandle.Attrs: Listing objects in a bucket is done with the BucketHandle.Objects method: Objects are listed lexicographically by name. To filter objects lexicographically, [Query.StartOffset] and/or [Query.EndOffset] can be used: If only a subset of object attributes is needed when listing, specifying this subset using Query.SetAttrSelection may speed up the listing process: Both objects and buckets have ACLs (Access Control Lists). An ACL is a list of ACLRules, each of which specifies the role of a user, group or project. ACLs are suitable for fine-grained control, but you may prefer using IAM to control access at the project level (see Cloud Storage IAM docs. To list the ACLs of a bucket or object, obtain an ACLHandle and call ACLHandle.List: You can also set and delete ACLs. Every object has a generation and a metageneration. The generation changes whenever the content changes, and the metageneration changes whenever the metadata changes. Conditions let you check these values before an operation; the operation only executes if the conditions match. You can use conditions to prevent race conditions in read-modify-write operations. For example, say you've read an object's metadata into objAttrs. Now you want to write to that object, but only if its contents haven't changed since you read it. Here is how to express that: You can obtain a URL that lets anyone read or write an object for a limited time. Signing a URL requires credentials authorized to sign a URL. To use the same authentication that was used when instantiating the Storage client, use BucketHandle.SignedURL. You can also sign a URL without creating a client. See the documentation of SignedURL for details. A type of signed request that allows uploads through HTML forms directly to Cloud Storage with temporary permission. Conditions can be applied to restrict how the HTML form is used and exercised by a user. For more information, please see the XML POST Object docs as well as the documentation of BucketHandle.GenerateSignedPostPolicyV4. If the GoogleAccessID and PrivateKey option fields are not provided, they will be automatically detected by BucketHandle.SignedURL and BucketHandle.GenerateSignedPostPolicyV4 if any of the following are true: Detecting GoogleAccessID may not be possible if you are authenticated using a token source or using option.WithHTTPClient. In this case, you can provide a service account email for GoogleAccessID and the client will attempt to sign the URL or Post Policy using that service account. To generate the signature, you must have: Errors returned by this client are often of the type googleapi.Error. These errors can be introspected for more information by using errors.As with the richer googleapi.Error type. For example: Methods in this package may retry calls that fail with transient errors. Retrying continues indefinitely unless the controlling context is canceled, the client is closed, or a non-transient error is received. To stop retries from continuing, use context timeouts or cancellation. The retry strategy in this library follows best practices for Cloud Storage. By default, operations are retried only if they are idempotent, and exponential backoff with jitter is employed. In addition, errors are only retried if they are defined as transient by the service. See the Cloud Storage retry docs for more information. Users can configure non-default retry behavior for a single library call (using BucketHandle.Retryer and ObjectHandle.Retryer) or for all calls made by a client (using Client.SetRetry). For example: You can add custom headers to any API call made by this package by using callctx.SetHeaders on the context which is passed to the method. For example, to add a custom audit logging header: This package includes support for the Cloud Storage gRPC API, which is currently in preview. This implementation uses gRPC rather than the current JSON & XML APIs to make requests to Cloud Storage. If you would like to try the API, please contact your GCP account rep for more information. The gRPC API is not yet generally available, so it may be subject to breaking changes. To create a client which will use gRPC, use the alternate constructor: If the application is running within GCP, users may get better performance by enabling DirectPath (enabling requests to skip some proxy steps). To enable, set the environment variable `GOOGLE_CLOUD_ENABLE_DIRECT_PATH_XDS=true` and add the following side-effect imports to your application:


Version published


Cloud Storage Go Reference

Example Usage

First create a storage.Client to use throughout your application:

client, err := storage.NewClient(ctx)
if err != nil {
// Read the object1 from bucket.
rc, err := client.Bucket("bucket").Object("object1").NewReader(ctx)
if err != nil {
defer rc.Close()
body, err := io.ReadAll(rc)
if err != nil {


Last updated on 09 Nov 2023

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