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fractal-page-object

A lightweight page object implementation with a focus on simplicity and extensibility


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fractal-page-object

A lightweight page object implementation with a focus on simplicity and extensibility

Table of Contents

Examples

Define page object:

import { PageObject, selector } from 'fractal-page-object';

class AlbumListPage extends PageObject {
  artistName = selector('.artist-name');
  albums = selector('.album', class extends PageObject {
    title = selector('.album-title');
    tracks = selector('.track', class extends PageObject {
      title = selector('.track-title');
    });
    
    play = selector('.play');
  });
}
let page = new AlbumListPage();

Using qunit:

import { module, test } from 'qunit';

// Put your page object here

module('album list page', function() {
  test('it renders albums and tracks', function(assert) {
    // render page

    assert.equal(page.artistName.element.textContent, '"Weird Al" Yancovic');
    assert.equal(page.albums.length, 2);

    assert.equal(page.albums[0].title.element.textContent, 'Even Worse');
    assert.equal(page.albums[1].title.element.textContent, 'Bad Hair Day');
    assert.equal(page.albums[2].title.element.textContent, 'Mandatory Fun');

    let badHairDay = page.albums[1];

    assert.deepEqual(badHairDay.tracks.slice(0, 3).map((track) => track.element.textContent), [
      'Amish Paradise',
      'Everything You Know is Wrong',
      'Cavity Search'
    ]);
    assert.notOk(badHairDay.play.element.classList.contains('playing'));

    badHairDay.play.element.click();
    assert.ok(badHairDay.play.element.classList.contains('playing'));
  });
});

Or using @ember/test-helpers and qunit-dom:

import { module, test } from 'qunit';
import { visit, click } from '@ember/test-helpers';

// Put your page object here

module('album list page', function() {
  test('it renders albums and tracks (using Ember & qunit-dom)', function(assert) {
    await visit('/album-list');

    assert.dom(page.artistName.element).hasText('"Weird Al" Yancovic');
    assert.equal(page.albums.length, 2);

    assert.dom(page.albums[0].title.element).hasText('Even Worse');
    assert.dom(page.albums[1].title.element).hasText('Bad Hair Day');
    assert.dom(page.albums[2].title.element).hasText('Mandatory Fun');

    let badHairDay = page.albums[1];

    [
      'Amish Paradise',
      'Everything You Know is Wrong',
      'Cavity Search'
    ].forEach((title, i) => assert.dom(badHairDay.tracks[i].element).hasText(title));
    assert.dom(badHairDay.play.element).doesNotHaveClass('playing');

    await click(badHairDay.play.element);
    assert.dom(badHairDay.play.element).hasClass('playing');
  });
});

Why page objects?

As you can see from the above example, they allow you to centralize your tests' knowledge of how your pages are laid out. This provides a number of benefits:

  1. More concise and easier to write tests -- having a page object that declaratively lays out the elements of your pages and components that are important to testing makes it easier to write tests -- rather than picking through all the markup in an HTML template to find the class name for the element you want to interact with, you can look through a much more concise page object declaration with a clearly defined structure and explicit human-readable names.
  2. Easier maintenance -- simple changes to your application like modifying a class name is a breeze, as it only requires making a single update to the page object describing that page or component, rather than searching-and-replacing through all of the tests that reference that class name. Even more complex refactors to a page's or component's HTML can often only require changes to the page object to keep the tests passing.
  3. Typing -- since fractal-page-object is built on typescript, you can take advantage of typechecking and type-aware IDE features to aid your test writing, something that's impossible when just querying selectors for DOM elements.

Usage

Mental Model

The mental model for page objects is, at its core, a tree structure. Each node in the tree is a page object that represents a DOM query, and at any given time matches zero or more DOM elements. In their very simplest form, each page object can be thought of as equivalent to a CSS selector, e.g. consider:

class WelcomePage extends PageObject {
  contactForm = selector('.contact-form', class extends PageObject {
    email = selector('.email');
    submit = selector('.submit');
  });
}
let page = new WelcomePage();

page.contactForm describes the list of DOM elements matched by document.querySelectorAll('.contact-form') (roughly -- see setRoot()), while page.contactForm.email describes document.querySelectorAll('.contact-form .email') and page.contactForm.submit describes document.querySelectorAll('.contact-form .submit').

Note the use of querySelectorAll() rather than querySelector() -- this is because, like CSS selectors, how you use page objects determines whether they resolve to the first matching element or all matching elements. Unlike CSS selectors, though, page objects can accommodate list indexing, analagous to the :eq() jQuery extension.

selector() also supports some strings that aren't valid CSS selectors, but can be used to build valid selectors, e.g. > .email. The rule is that a string passed to selector() is valid if it is itself a valid CSS selector, or if prepending :scope to it would make it a valid CSS selector.

Page objects as lists

Page objects expose an array-like API -- they implement the index operator, the Array iteration methods such as map() and find(), and several other Array methods. The index operator always returns a page object, but one that is restricted to the element at the given index (if there is one).

document.body.innerHTML = `
  <div id="div1"></div>
  <div id="div2"></div>
`;

class Page extends PageObject {
  divs = selector('div');
}
let page = new Page();

page.divs.element; // div1
page.divs.elements; // [div1, div2]
page.divs[0].element; // div1
page.divs[0].elements; // [div1]
page.divs[1].element; // div2
page.divs[1].elements; // [div2]
page.divs[2].element; // null
page.divs[2].elements; // []

The iteration methods execute the query and iterate over the results (wrapping in page objects), and therefore all page objects returned from the iterator have a single matching element. Extending the above example:

page.divs.map((div) => div.id); // ['div1', 'div2']
page.divs.find((div) => div.id.endsWith('2')).element; // div2

Since the page objects act like selectors, the matching behavior is quite flexible:

document.body.innerHTML = `
  <div>
    <span id="span1"></span>
  </div>
  <div>
    <span id="span2"></span>
    <span id="span3"></span>
  </div>
`;

class Page extends PageObject {
  divs = selector('div', class extends PageObject {
    spans = selector('span');    
  });
}
let page = new Page();

page.divs.spans.elements; // [span1, span2, span3]
page.divs[0].spans.elements; // [span1]
page.divs[1].spans.elements; // [span2, span3]
page.divs.spans[1].element; // span2
page.divs[0].spans[0].element; // span1
page.divs[1].spans[1].element; // span3

Lazy evaluation

Page object nodes are lazy evaluated, meaning that they can be stored and will update dynamically:

class Page extends PageObject {
  listItems = selector('li', class extends PageObject {
    image = selector('image');
  });
  loadButton = selector('.load');
}
let page = new Page();

let images = page.listItems.image;
images.length; // 0

page.loadButton.element.click(); // populates the DOM with list items
images.length; // 6

and this includes array indexing:

class Page extends PageObject {
  listItems = selector('li', class extends PageObject {
    image = selector('image');
  });
  loadButton = selector('.load');
}
let page = new Page();

let thirdImage = listItems[2].image;
thirdImage.element; // null

page.loadButton.element.click(); // populates the DOM with list items
thirdImage.element; // non-null

Element types (typescript)

By default all elements returned from page objects are typed as generic Elements. However, if a page object is known to always return elements of a particular Element sub-type, that can be encoded in the page object's declaration:

class Page extends PageObject {
  loadButton = selector<HTMLButtonElement>('.load');  
  form = selector('form', class extends PageObject<HTMLFormElement> {
    input = selector<HTMLInputElement>('.form-input');
  });
}
let page = new Page();

// the `disabled` property is present because `page.loadButton.element` is an
// `HTMLButtonElement`
page.loadButton.element.disabled = false;

// the `value` property is present because `page.form.input.element` is an
// `HTMLInputElement`
page.form.input.value = ;

// the `submit` method is present because `page.form.element` is an
// `HTMLFormElement`
page.form.submit();

Note that there are no runtime checks enforcing this -- it's just the equivalent of document.querySelector('.thing') as HTMLButtonElement.

Extending

Page objects can be extended by adding any functionality to the PageObject subclass:

class Page extends PageObject {
  listItems = selector('li', class extends PageObject {
    checkbox = selector('checkbox');

    get isSelected() {
      return this.checkbox.element.checked;
    }

    toggle() {
      this.checkbox.element.click();
    }
  });

  selectAll() {
    for (let item of this.listItems) {
      if (!item.isSelected) {
        item.toggle();
      }
    }
  }
}

Re-use

To support testing of component-based applications, page objects can be reused as descendants of other page objects as well being root-level page objects. For example, consider a login form component that is used on a login page and on a purchase completion page:

import { module, test } from 'qunit';
import { PageObject, selector } from 'fractal-page-object';

class LoginForm extends PageObject {
  username = selector('.username');
  password = selector('.password');
  submitButton = selector('[type="submit"]');
}

class LoginPage extends PageObject {
  createAccount = selector('.createAccount');
  loginForm = selector('.login-form', LoginForm);
}

class CompletePurchasePage extends PageObject {
  purchaseInfo = selector('.purchase-info');
  purchaseButton = selector('.purchase');

  loginModal = selector('.login-modal', class extends PageObject {
    loginForm = selector('.login-form', LoginForm);
  });
}

LoginForm could be used to test the login form in isolation (e.g. in an Ember rendering test), and LoginPage and CompletePurchasePage could be used to test it along with the rest of the contents of the respective pages (e.g. in an Ember acceptance test). If the LoginForm is a component that always renders itself with the login-form class on its root element, then you might DRY up that class with a static property:

class LoginForm extends PageObject {
  static selector = selector('.login-form', LoginForm);
}

class LoginPage extends PageObject {
  loginForm = LoginForm.selector;
}

API

See API.md

In Ember

fractal-page-object was built with Ember and qunit-dom in mind, and is instrumented to detect when it's running in Ember tests and use the @ember/test-helpers testing root as its root element by default.

Integrating with qunit-dom and @ember/test-helpers

Currently fractal-page-object works with qunit-dom and @ember/test-helpers because their APIs both accept a DOM Element. However, this doesn't allow for very helpful error messages, as there is no way to pass any information about the selector used to query the element. My hope is that the Ember community will be able to define an interface that both qunit-dom and @ember/test-helpers can support for allowing external DOM query implementations, which is fundamentally what fractal-page-object is, to supplement their existing support for selector-based queries and passing Elements. This would allow syntax like

assert.dom(page.header).hasText('Welcome back!');
assert.dom(page.listItems).exists({ count: 3 });
assert.dom(page.listItems[1].title).hasClass('selected');
await click(page.loadMoreButton);

and allow better debug/error messages. See this RFC for a proposal for how this might work.

fractal-page-object vs. ember-cli-page-object

There are several significant factors that differentiate fractal-page-object from ember-cli-page-object (aside from it not being tied to Ember). I love ember-cli-page-object, think it's an excellent library, and have been using it for years, so I hope this doesn't come across as casting shade. I thought the time was right to green-field something that leverages the latest Javascript features in the hopes of producing an evolution of the page object model with very clean ergonomics and flexible opportunities for integrating with other testing libraries.

Query-only

fractal-page-object has a tight focus on the core value of querying the DOM. All of its core functionality is built around that, taking as input a selector-based desciption of the relevant parts of the DOM and exposing as output native DOM Elements, which allows it to "plug in" to any tooling that works with DOM Elements. ember-cli-page-object aims to do more, providing a higher-level declarative API for reading information off the the DOM objects (such as attibutes, text content, visibility determinations, etc.), and providing its own set of DOM interaction helpers. My hope is that this will allow fractal-page-object to integrate very cleanly with existing tooling without duplicating significant portions of that tooling's functionality.

Native syntax

fractal-page-object uses proxies to enable native array syntax when dealing with lists of elements:

// fractal-page-object
page.listItems[0].title;
// ember-cli-page-object
page.listItems.objectAt(0).title;

and uses ES6 classes as the basis of its declarative API, which enables modern features like getters, decorators, field initializers, etc.

Lightweight (no jQuery)

fractal-page-object has its own DOM query implementation that handles indexing into multi-element matches, and therefore does not need to rely on jQuery for the :eq() selector extension. In fact, fractal-page-object has no runtime dependencies.

Why fractal?

Four reasons:

  1. Naming things is hard
  2. I like the word
  3. It roughly describes the array-like behavior of page objects where the index operator returns a page object with the same shape, but representing only one element of the list
  4. Naming things is hard

Keywords

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Package last updated on 09 Jul 2024

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