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Package restful , a lean package for creating REST-style WebServices without magic. A WebService has a collection of Route objects that dispatch incoming Http Requests to a function calls. Typically, a WebService has a root path (e.g. /users) and defines common MIME types for its routes. WebServices must be added to a container (see below) in order to handler Http requests from a server. A Route is defined by a HTTP method, an URL path and (optionally) the MIME types it consumes (Content-Type) and produces (Accept). This package has the logic to find the best matching Route and if found, call its Function. The (*Request, *Response) arguments provide functions for reading information from the request and writing information back to the response. See the example https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful/blob/master/examples/restful-user-resource.go with a full implementation. A Route parameter can be specified using the format "uri/{var[:regexp]}" or the special version "uri/{var:*}" for matching the tail of the path. For example, /persons/{name:[A-Z][A-Z]} can be used to restrict values for the parameter "name" to only contain capital alphabetic characters. Regular expressions must use the standard Go syntax as described in the regexp package. (https://code.google.com/p/re2/wiki/Syntax) This feature requires the use of a CurlyRouter. A Container holds a collection of WebServices, Filters and a http.ServeMux for multiplexing http requests. Using the statements "restful.Add(...) and restful.Filter(...)" will register WebServices and Filters to the Default Container. The Default container of go-restful uses the http.DefaultServeMux. You can create your own Container and create a new http.Server for that particular container. A filter dynamically intercepts requests and responses to transform or use the information contained in the requests or responses. You can use filters to perform generic logging, measurement, authentication, redirect, set response headers etc. In the restful package there are three hooks into the request,response flow where filters can be added. Each filter must define a FilterFunction: Use the following statement to pass the request,response pair to the next filter or RouteFunction These are processed before any registered WebService. These are processed before any Route of a WebService. These are processed before calling the function associated with the Route. See the example https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful/blob/master/examples/restful-filters.go with full implementations. Two encodings are supported: gzip and deflate. To enable this for all responses: If a Http request includes the Accept-Encoding header then the response content will be compressed using the specified encoding. Alternatively, you can create a Filter that performs the encoding and install it per WebService or Route. See the example https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful/blob/master/examples/restful-encoding-filter.go By installing a pre-defined container filter, your Webservice(s) can respond to the OPTIONS Http request. By installing the filter of a CrossOriginResourceSharing (CORS), your WebService(s) can handle CORS requests. Unexpected things happen. If a request cannot be processed because of a failure, your service needs to tell via the response what happened and why. For this reason HTTP status codes exist and it is important to use the correct code in every exceptional situation. If path or query parameters are not valid (content or type) then use http.StatusBadRequest. Despite a valid URI, the resource requested may not be available If the application logic could not process the request (or write the response) then use http.StatusInternalServerError. The request has a valid URL but the method (GET,PUT,POST,...) is not allowed. The request does not have or has an unknown Accept Header set for this operation. The request does not have or has an unknown Content-Type Header set for this operation. In addition to setting the correct (error) Http status code, you can choose to write a ServiceError message on the response. This package has several options that affect the performance of your service. It is important to understand them and how you can change it. DoNotRecover controls whether panics will be caught to return HTTP 500. If set to false, the container will recover from panics. Default value is true If content encoding is enabled then the default strategy for getting new gzip/zlib writers and readers is to use a sync.Pool. Because writers are expensive structures, performance is even more improved when using a preloaded cache. You can also inject your own implementation. This package has the means to produce detail logging of the complete Http request matching process and filter invocation. Enabling this feature requires you to set an implementation of restful.StdLogger (e.g. log.Logger) instance such as: The restful.SetLogger() method allows you to override the logger used by the package. By default restful uses the standard library `log` package and logs to stdout. Different logging packages are supported as long as they conform to `StdLogger` interface defined in the `log` sub-package, writing an adapter for your preferred package is simple. (c) 2012-2015, http://ernestmicklei.com. MIT License

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go-restful
==========
package for building REST-style Web Services using Google Go

[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/emicklei/go-restful.png)](https://travis-ci.org/emicklei/go-restful)
[![Go Report Card](https://goreportcard.com/badge/github.com/emicklei/go-restful)](https://goreportcard.com/report/github.com/emicklei/go-restful)
[![GoDoc](https://godoc.org/github.com/emicklei/go-restful?status.svg)](https://godoc.org/github.com/emicklei/go-restful)

- [Code examples](https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful/tree/master/examples)

REST asks developers to use HTTP methods explicitly and in a way that's consistent with the protocol definition. This basic REST design principle establishes a one-to-one mapping between create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) operations and HTTP methods. According to this mapping:

- GET = Retrieve a representation of a resource
- POST = Create if you are sending content to the server to create a subordinate of the specified resource collection, using some server-side algorithm.
- PUT = Create if you are sending the full content of the specified resource (URI).
- PUT = Update if you are updating the full content of the specified resource.
- DELETE = Delete if you are requesting the server to delete the resource
- PATCH = Update partial content of a resource
- OPTIONS = Get information about the communication options for the request URI
    
### Example

```Go
ws := new(restful.WebService)
ws.
	Path("/users").
	Consumes(restful.MIME_XML, restful.MIME_JSON).
	Produces(restful.MIME_JSON, restful.MIME_XML)

ws.Route(ws.GET("/{user-id}").To(u.findUser).
	Doc("get a user").
	Param(ws.PathParameter("user-id", "identifier of the user").DataType("string")).
	Writes(User{}))		
...
	
func (u UserResource) findUser(request *restful.Request, response *restful.Response) {
	id := request.PathParameter("user-id")
	...
}
```
	
[Full API of a UserResource](https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful/tree/master/examples/restful-user-resource.go) 
		
### Features

- Routes for request → function mapping with path parameter (e.g. {id}) support
- Configurable router:
	- (default) Fast routing algorithm that allows static elements, regular expressions and dynamic parameters in the URL path (e.g. /meetings/{id} or /static/{subpath:*}
	- Routing algorithm after [JSR311](http://jsr311.java.net/nonav/releases/1.1/spec/spec.html) that is implemented using (but does **not** accept) regular expressions
- Request API for reading structs from JSON/XML and accesing parameters (path,query,header)
- Response API for writing structs to JSON/XML and setting headers
- Customizable encoding using EntityReaderWriter registration
- Filters for intercepting the request → response flow on Service or Route level
- Request-scoped variables using attributes
- Containers for WebServices on different HTTP endpoints
- Content encoding (gzip,deflate) of request and response payloads
- Automatic responses on OPTIONS (using a filter)
- Automatic CORS request handling (using a filter)
- API declaration for Swagger UI ([go-restful-openapi](https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful-openapi), see [go-restful-swagger12](https://github.com/emicklei/go-restful-swagger12))
- Panic recovery to produce HTTP 500, customizable using RecoverHandler(...)
- Route errors produce HTTP 404/405/406/415 errors, customizable using ServiceErrorHandler(...)
- Configurable (trace) logging
- Customizable gzip/deflate readers and writers using CompressorProvider registration

## How to customize
There are several hooks to customize the behavior of the go-restful package.

- Router algorithm
- Panic recovery
- JSON decoder
- Trace logging
- Compression
- Encoders for other serializers

TODO: write examples of these.

## Resources

- [Example posted on blog](http://ernestmicklei.com/2012/11/go-restful-first-working-example/)
- [Design explained on blog](http://ernestmicklei.com/2012/11/go-restful-api-design/)
- [sourcegraph](https://sourcegraph.com/github.com/emicklei/go-restful)
- [showcase: Zazkia - tcp proxy for testing resiliency](https://github.com/emicklei/zazkia)
- [showcase: Mora - MongoDB REST Api server](https://github.com/emicklei/mora)

Type ```git shortlog -s``` for a full list of contributors.

© 2012 - 2018, http://ernestmicklei.com. MIT License. Contributions are welcome.

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Last updated on 31 May 2018

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