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github.com/pkg/errors

Package errors provides simple error handling primitives. The traditional error handling idiom in Go is roughly akin to which when applied recursively up the call stack results in error reports without context or debugging information. The errors package allows programmers to add context to the failure path in their code in a way that does not destroy the original value of the error. The errors.Wrap function returns a new error that adds context to the original error by recording a stack trace at the point Wrap is called, together with the supplied message. For example If additional control is required, the errors.WithStack and errors.WithMessage functions destructure errors.Wrap into its component operations: annotating an error with a stack trace and with a message, respectively. Using errors.Wrap constructs a stack of errors, adding context to the preceding error. Depending on the nature of the error it may be necessary to reverse the operation of errors.Wrap to retrieve the original error for inspection. Any error value which implements this interface can be inspected by errors.Cause. errors.Cause will recursively retrieve the topmost error that does not implement causer, which is assumed to be the original cause. For example: Although the causer interface is not exported by this package, it is considered a part of its stable public interface. All error values returned from this package implement fmt.Formatter and can be formatted by the fmt package. The following verbs are supported: New, Errorf, Wrap, and Wrapf record a stack trace at the point they are invoked. This information can be retrieved with the following interface: The returned errors.StackTrace type is defined as The Frame type represents a call site in the stack trace. Frame supports the fmt.Formatter interface that can be used for printing information about the stack trace of this error. For example: Although the stackTracer interface is not exported by this package, it is considered a part of its stable public interface. See the documentation for Frame.Format for more details.

    v0.9.1

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# errors [![Travis-CI](https://travis-ci.org/pkg/errors.svg)](https://travis-ci.org/pkg/errors) [![AppVeyor](https://ci.appveyor.com/api/projects/status/b98mptawhudj53ep/branch/master?svg=true)](https://ci.appveyor.com/project/davecheney/errors/branch/master) [![GoDoc](https://godoc.org/github.com/pkg/errors?status.svg)](http://godoc.org/github.com/pkg/errors) [![Report card](https://goreportcard.com/badge/github.com/pkg/errors)](https://goreportcard.com/report/github.com/pkg/errors) [![Sourcegraph](https://sourcegraph.com/github.com/pkg/errors/-/badge.svg)](https://sourcegraph.com/github.com/pkg/errors?badge)

Package errors provides simple error handling primitives.

`go get github.com/pkg/errors`

The traditional error handling idiom in Go is roughly akin to
```go
if err != nil {
        return err
}
```
which applied recursively up the call stack results in error reports without context or debugging information. The errors package allows programmers to add context to the failure path in their code in a way that does not destroy the original value of the error.

## Adding context to an error

The errors.Wrap function returns a new error that adds context to the original error. For example
```go
_, err := ioutil.ReadAll(r)
if err != nil {
        return errors.Wrap(err, "read failed")
}
```
## Retrieving the cause of an error

Using `errors.Wrap` constructs a stack of errors, adding context to the preceding error. Depending on the nature of the error it may be necessary to reverse the operation of errors.Wrap to retrieve the original error for inspection. Any error value which implements this interface can be inspected by `errors.Cause`.
```go
type causer interface {
        Cause() error
}
```
`errors.Cause` will recursively retrieve the topmost error which does not implement `causer`, which is assumed to be the original cause. For example:
```go
switch err := errors.Cause(err).(type) {
case *MyError:
        // handle specifically
default:
        // unknown error
}
```

[Read the package documentation for more information](https://godoc.org/github.com/pkg/errors).

## Roadmap

With the upcoming [Go2 error proposals](https://go.googlesource.com/proposal/+/master/design/go2draft.md) this package is moving into maintenance mode. The roadmap for a 1.0 release is as follows:

- 0.9. Remove pre Go 1.9 and Go 1.10 support, address outstanding pull requests (if possible)
- 1.0. Final release.

## Contributing

Because of the Go2 errors changes, this package is not accepting proposals for new functionality. With that said, we welcome pull requests, bug fixes and issue reports. 

Before sending a PR, please discuss your change by raising an issue.

## License

BSD-2-Clause

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Last updated on 14 Jan 2020

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