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once

Run a function exactly one time


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Package description

What is once?

The 'once' npm package is a utility that allows you to ensure a function can only be called once. It is useful for preventing duplicate initialization, handling setup tasks that should only run a single time, or ensuring a callback is only executed once in response to an event or the resolution of a Promise.

What are once's main functionalities?

Ensuring a function is only called once

This feature is used to wrap a function so that it can only be executed once. Subsequent calls to the function will have no effect, and the original return value will be returned.

const once = require('once');
const myFunction = once(() => {
  console.log('This will only be logged once.');
});

myFunction(); // logs 'This will only be logged once.'
myFunction(); // does nothing

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once

Only call a function once.

usage

var once = require('once')

function load (file, cb) {
  cb = once(cb)
  loader.load('file')
  loader.once('load', cb)
  loader.once('error', cb)
}

Or add to the Function.prototype in a responsible way:

// only has to be done once
require('once').proto()

function load (file, cb) {
  cb = cb.once()
  loader.load('file')
  loader.once('load', cb)
  loader.once('error', cb)
}

Ironically, the prototype feature makes this module twice as complicated as necessary.

To check whether you function has been called, use fn.called. Once the function is called for the first time the return value of the original function is saved in fn.value and subsequent calls will continue to return this value.

var once = require('once')

function load (cb) {
  cb = once(cb)
  var stream = createStream()
  stream.once('data', cb)
  stream.once('end', function () {
    if (!cb.called) cb(new Error('not found'))
  })
}

once.strict(func)

Throw an error if the function is called twice.

Some functions are expected to be called only once. Using once for them would potentially hide logical errors.

In the example below, the greet function has to call the callback only once:

function greet (name, cb) {
  // return is missing from the if statement
  // when no name is passed, the callback is called twice
  if (!name) cb('Hello anonymous')
  cb('Hello ' + name)
}

function log (msg) {
  console.log(msg)
}

// this will print 'Hello anonymous' but the logical error will be missed
greet(null, once(msg))

// once.strict will print 'Hello anonymous' and throw an error when the callback will be called the second time
greet(null, once.strict(msg))

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Package last updated on 06 Sep 2016

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