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async-upnp-client

Async UPnP Client

    0.38.2

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Async UPnP Client
=================

Asyncio UPnP Client library for Python/asyncio.

Written initially for use in `Home Assistant <https://github.com/home-assistant/home-assistant>`_ to drive `DLNA DMR`-capable devices, but useful for other projects as well.

Status
------

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   :target: https://app.travis-ci.com/github/StevenLooman/async_upnp_client

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   :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/async_upnp_client

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   :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/async_upnp_client

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   :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/async_upnp_client

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   :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/async_upnp_client


General set up
--------------

The `UPnP Device Architecture <https://openconnectivity.org/upnp-specs/UPnP-arch-DeviceArchitecture-v2.0-20200417.pdf>`_ document contains several sections describing different parts of the UPnP standard. These chapters/sections can mostly be mapped to the following modules:

* Chapter 1 Discovery
   * Section 1.1 SSDP: ``async_upnp_client.ssdp``
   * Section 1.2 Advertisement: ``async_upnp_client.advertisement`` provides basic functionality to receive advertisements.
   * Section 1.3 Search: ``async_upnp_client.search`` provides basic functionality to do search requests and gather the responses.
   * ``async_upnp_client.ssdp_client`` contains the ``SsdpListener`` which combines advertisements and search to get the known devices and provides callbacks on changes. It is meant as something which runs continuously to provide useful information about the SSDP-active devices.
* Chapter 2 Description / Chapter 3 Control
   * ``async_upnp_client.client_factory``/``async_upnp_client.client`` provide a series of classes to get information about the device/services using the 'description', and interact with these devices.
   * ``async_upnp_client.server`` provides a series of classes to set up a UPnP server, including SSDP discovery/advertisements.
* Chapter 4 Eventing
   * ``async_upnp_client.event_handler`` provides functionality to handle events received from the device.

There are several 'profiles' which a device can implement to provide a standard interface to talk to. Some of these profiles are added to this library. The following profiles are currently available:

* Internet Gateway Device (IGD)
   * ``async_upnp_client.profiles.igd``
* Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA)
   * ``async_upnp_client.profiles.dlna``
* Printers
   * ``async_upnp_client.profiles.printer``

For examples on how to use ``async_upnp_client``, see ``examples``/ .

Note that this library is most likely does not fully implement all functionality from the UPnP Device Architecture document and/or contains errors/bugs/mis-interpretations.


Contributing
------------

See ``CONTRIBUTING.rst``.


Development
-----------

Development is done on the ``development`` branch.

``pre-commit`` is used to run several checks before committing. You can install ``pre-commit`` and the git-hook by doing::

    $ pip install pre-commit
    $ pre-commit --install

The `Open Connectivity Foundation <https://openconnectivity.org/>`_ provides a bundle with all `UPnP Specifications <https://openconnectivity.org/developer/specifications/upnp-resources/upnp/>`_.


Changes
-------

Changes are recorded using `Towncier <https://towncrier.readthedocs.io/>`_. Once a new release is created, towncrier is used to create the file ``CHANGES.rst``.

To create a new change run:

    $ towncrier create <pr-number>.<change type>

A change type can be one of:

- feature: Signifying a new feature.
- bugfix: Signifying a bug fix.
- doc: Signifying a documentation improvement.
- removal: Signifying a deprecation or removal of public API.
- misc: A ticket has been closed, but it is not of interest to users.

A new file is then created in the ``changes`` directory. Add a short description of the change to that file.



Releasing
---------

Steps for releasing:

- Switch to development: ``git checkout development``
- Do a pull: ``git pull``
- Run towncrier: ``towncrier build --version <version>``
- Commit towncrier results: ``git commit -m "Towncrier"``
- Run bump2version: ``bump2version --tag major/minor/patch``
   - Note that this creates a new commit + tag.
- Checkout tag: ``git checkout <version>``
- Build: ``rm -rf build dist && python setup.py build sdist``
- Upload using twine: ``twine upload dist/*``
- Switch to development: ``git checkout development``
- Push to github: ``git push && git push --tags``


Profiling
---------

To do profiling it is recommended to install `pytest-profiling <https://pypi.org/project/pytest-profiling>`_. Then run a test with profiling enabled, and write the results to a graph::

    # Run tests with profiling and svg-output enabled. This will generate prof/*.prof files, and a svg file.
    $ pytest --profile-svg -k test_case_insensitive_dict_profile
    ...

    # Open generated SVG file.
    $ xdg-open prof/combined.svg


Alternatively, you can generate a profiling data file, use `pyprof2calltree <https://github.com/pwaller/pyprof2calltree/>`_ to convert the data and open `kcachegrind <http://kcachegrind.sourceforge.net/html/Home.html>`_. For example::

    # Run tests with profiling enabled, this will generate prof/*.prof files.
    $ pytest --profile -k test_case_insensitive_dict_profile
    ...

    $ pyprof2calltree -i prof/combined.prof -k
    launching kcachegrind


upnp-client
-----------

A command line interface is provided via the ``upnp-client`` script. This script can be used to:

- call an action
- subscribe to services and listen for events
- show UPnP traffic (--debug-traffic) from and to the device
- show pretty printed JSON (--pprint) for human readability
- search for devices
- listen for advertisements

The output of the script is a single line of JSON for each action-call or subscription-event. See the programs help for more information.

An example of calling an action::

    $ upnp-client --pprint call-action http://192.168.178.10:49152/description.xml RC/GetVolume InstanceID=0 Channel=Master
    {
        "timestamp": 1531482271.5603056,
        "service_id": "urn:upnp-org:serviceId:RenderingControl",
        "service_type": "urn:schemas-upnp-org:service:RenderingControl:1",
        "action": "GetVolume",
        "in_parameters": {
            "InstanceID": 0,
            "Channel": "Master"
        },
        "out_parameters": {
            "CurrentVolume": 70
        }
    }


An example of subscribing to all services, note that the program stays running until you stop it (ctrl-c)::

    $ upnp-client --pprint subscribe http://192.168.178.10:49152/description.xml \*
    {
        "timestamp": 1531482518.3663802,
        "service_id": "urn:upnp-org:serviceId:RenderingControl",
        "service_type": "urn:schemas-upnp-org:service:RenderingControl:1",
        "state_variables": {
            "LastChange": "<Event xmlns=\"urn:schemas-upnp-org:metadata-1-0/AVT_RCS\">\n<InstanceID val=\"0\">\n<Mute channel=\"Master\" val=\"0\"/>\n<Volume channel=\"Master\" val=\"70\"/>\n</InstanceID>\n</Event>\n"
        }
    }
    {
        "timestamp": 1531482518.366804,
        "service_id": "urn:upnp-org:serviceId:RenderingControl",
        "service_type": "urn:schemas-upnp-org:service:RenderingControl:1",
        "state_variables": {
            "Mute": false,
            "Volume": 70
        }
    }
    ...

You can subscribe to list of services by providing these names or abbreviated names, such as::

    $ upnp-client --pprint subscribe http://192.168.178.10:49152/description.xml RC AVTransport


An example of searching for devices::

    $ upnp-client --pprint search
    {
        "Cache-Control": "max-age=3600",
        "Date": "Sat, 27 Oct 2018 10:43:42 GMT",
        "EXT": "",
        "Location": "http://192.168.178.1:49152/description.xml",
        "OPT": "\"http://schemas.upnp.org/upnp/1/0/\"; ns=01",
        "01-NLS": "906ad736-cfc4-11e8-9c22-8bb67c653324",
        "Server": "Linux/4.14.26+, UPnP/1.0, Portable SDK for UPnP devices/1.6.20.jfd5",
        "X-User-Agent": "redsonic",
        "ST": "upnp:rootdevice",
        "USN": "uuid:e3a17dd5-9d85-3131-3c34-b827eb498d72::upnp:rootdevice",
        "_timestamp": "2018-10-27 12:43:09.125408",
        "_host": "192.168.178.1",
        "_port": 49152
        "_udn": "uuid:e3a17dd5-9d85-3131-3c34-b827eb498d72",
        "_source": "search"
    }


An example of listening for advertisements, note that the program stays running until you stop it (ctrl-c)::

    $ upnp-client --pprint advertisements
    {
        "Host": "239.255.255.250:1900",
        "Cache-Control": "max-age=30",
        "Location": "http://192.168.178.1:1900/WFADevice.xml",
        "NTS": "ssdp:alive",
        "Server": "POSIX, UPnP/1.0 UPnP Stack/2013.4.3.0",
        "NT": "urn:schemas-wifialliance-org:device:WFADevice:1",
        "USN": "uuid:99cb221c-1f15-c620-dc29-395f415623c6::urn:schemas-wifialliance-org:device:WFADevice:1",
        "_timestamp": "2018-12-23 11:22:47.154293",
        "_host": "192.168.178.1",
        "_port": 1900
        "_udn": "uuid:99cb221c-1f15-c620-dc29-395f415623c6",
        "_source": "advertisement"
    }


IPv6 support
------------

IPv6 is supported for the UPnP client functionality as well as the SSDP functionality. Please do note that multicast over IPv6 does require a ``scope_id``/interface ID. The ``scope_id`` is used to specify which interface should be used.

There are several ways to get the ``scope_id``. Via Python this can be done via the `ifaddr <https://github.com/pydron/ifaddr>`_ library. From the (Linux) command line the ``scope_id`` can be found via the `ip` command::

    $ ip address
    ...
    6: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
        link/ether 00:15:5d:38:97:cf brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
        inet 192.168.1.2/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global eth0
            valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
        inet6 fe80::215:5dff:fe38:97cf/64 scope link
            valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever

In this case, the interface index is 6 (start of the line) and thus the ``scope_id`` is ``6``.

Or on Windows using the ``ipconfig`` command::

    C:\> ipconfig /all
    ...
    Ethernet adapter Ethernet:
        ...
        Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::e530:c739:24d7:c8c7%8(Preferred)
    ...

The ``scope_id`` is ``8`` in this example, as shown after the ``%`` character at the end of the IPv6 address.

Or on macOS using the ``ifconfig`` command::

    % ifconfig
    ...
    en0: flags=8863<UP,BROADCAST,SMART,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
          options=50b<RXCSUM,TXCSUM,VLAN_HWTAGGING,AV,CHANNEL_IO>
          ether 38:c9:86:30:fe:be
          inet6 fe80::215:5dff:fe38:97cf%en0 prefixlen 64 secured scopeid 0x4
    ...

The ``scope_id`` is ``4`` in this example, as shown by ``scopeid 0x4``. Note that this is a hexadecimal value.

Be aware that Python ``<3.9`` does not support the ``IPv6Address.scope_id`` attribute. As such, a ``AddressTupleVXType`` is used to specify the ``source``- and ``target``-addresses. In case of IPv4, ``AddressTupleV4Type`` is a 2-tuple with ``address``, ``port``. ``AddressTupleV6Type`` is used for IPv6 and is a 4-tuple with ``address``, ``port``, ``flowinfo``, ``scope_id``. More information can be found in the Python ``socket`` module documentation.

All functionality regarding SSDP uses ``AddressTupleVXType`` the specify addresses.

For consistency, the ``AiohttpNotifyServer`` also uses a tuple the specify the ``source`` (the address and port the notify server listens on.)


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