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eth-keys

eth-keys: Common API for Ethereum key operations


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eth-keys

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Common API for Ethereum key operations

This library and repository was previously located at https://github.com/pipermerriam/ethereum-keys. It was transferred to the Ethereum foundation github in November 2017 and renamed to eth-keys. The PyPi package was also renamed from ethereum-keys to eth-keys.

Read more in the documentation below. View the change log.

Quickstart

python -m pip install eth-keys
>>> from eth_keys import keys
>>> pk = keys.PrivateKey(b'\x01' * 32)
>>> signature = pk.sign_msg(b'a message')
>>> pk
'0x0101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101010101'
>>> pk.public_key
'0x1b84c5567b126440995d3ed5aaba0565d71e1834604819ff9c17f5e9d5dd078f70beaf8f588b541507fed6a642c5ab42dfdf8120a7f639de5122d47a69a8e8d1'
>>> signature
'0xccda990dba7864b79dc49158fea269338a1cf5747bc4c4bf1b96823e31a0997e7d1e65c06c5bf128b7109e1b4b9ba8d1305dc33f32f624695b2fa8e02c12c1e000'
>>> pk.public_key.to_checksum_address()
'0x1a642f0E3c3aF545E7AcBD38b07251B3990914F1'
>>> signature.verify_msg(b'a message', pk.public_key)
True
>>> signature.recover_public_key_from_msg(b'a message') == pk.public_key
True

Documentation

KeyAPI(backend=None)

The KeyAPI object is the primary API for interacting with the eth-keys libary. The object takes a single optional argument in its constructor which designates what backend will be used for eliptical curve cryptography operations. The built-in backends are:

  • eth_keys.backends.NativeECCBackend: A pure python implementation of the ECC operations.
  • eth_keys.backends.CoinCurveECCBackend: Uses the coincurve library for ECC operations.

By default, eth-keys will try to use the CoinCurveECCBackend, falling back to the NativeECCBackend if the coincurve library is not available.

Note: The coincurve library is not automatically installed with eth-keys and must be installed separately.

The backend argument can be given in any of the following forms.

  • Instance of the backend class
  • The backend class
  • String with the dot-separated import path for the backend class.
>>> from eth_keys import KeyAPI
>>> from eth_keys.backends import NativeECCBackend
# These are all the same
>>> keys = KeyAPI(NativeECCBackend)
>>> keys = KeyAPI(NativeECCBackend())
>>> keys = KeyAPI('eth_keys.backends.NativeECCBackend')
# Or for the coincurve base backend
>>> keys = KeyAPI('eth_keys.backends.CoinCurveECCBackend')

The backend can also be configured using the environment variable ECC_BACKEND_CLASS which should be set to the dot-separated python import path to the desired backend.

>>> import os
>>> os.environ['ECC_BACKEND_CLASS'] = 'eth_keys.backends.CoinCurveECCBackend'

KeyAPI.ecdsa_sign(message_hash, private_key) -> Signature

This method returns a signature for the given message_hash, signed by the provided private_key.

  • message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32
  • private_key: must be an instance of PrivateKey

KeyAPI.ecdsa_verify(message_hash, signature, public_key) -> bool

Returns True or False based on whether the provided signature is a valid signature for the provided message_hash and public_key.

  • message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32
  • signature: must be an instance of Signature
  • public_key: must be an instance of PublicKey

KeyAPI.ecdsa_recover(message_hash, signature) -> PublicKey

Returns the PublicKey instances recovered from the given signature and message_hash.

  • message_hash: must be a byte string of length 32
  • signature: must be an instance of Signature

KeyAPI.private_key_to_public_key(private_key) -> PublicKey

Returns the PublicKey instances computed from the given private_key instance.

  • private_key: must be an instance of PublicKey

Common APIs for PublicKey, PrivateKey and Signature

There is a common API for the following objects.

  • PublicKey
  • PrivateKey
  • Signature

Each of these objects has all of the following APIs.

  • obj.to_bytes(): Returns the object in it's canonical bytes serialization.
  • obj.to_hex(): Returns a text string of the hex encoded canonical representation.

KeyAPI.PublicKey(public_key_bytes)

The PublicKey class takes a single argument which must be a bytes string with length 64.

Note that there are two other common formats for public keys: 65 bytes with a leading \x04 byte and 33 bytes starting with either \x02 or \x03. To use the former with the PublicKey object, remove the first byte. For the latter, refer to PublicKey.from_compressed_bytes.

The following methods are available:

PublicKey.from_compressed_bytes(compressed_bytes) -> PublicKey

This classmethod returns a new PublicKey instance computed from its compressed representation.

  • compressed_bytes must be a byte string of length 33 starting with \x02 or \x03.
PublicKey.from_private(private_key) -> PublicKey

This classmethod returns a new PublicKey instance computed from the given private_key.

  • private_key may either be a byte string of length 32 or an instance of the KeyAPI.PrivateKey class.
PublicKey.recover_from_msg(message, signature) -> PublicKey

This classmethod returns a new PublicKey instance computed from the provided message and signature.

  • message must be a byte string
  • signature must be an instance of KeyAPI.Signature
PublicKey.recover_from_msg_hash(message_hash, signature) -> PublicKey

Same as PublicKey.recover_from_msg except that message_hash should be the Keccak hash of the message.

PublicKey.verify_msg(message, signature) -> bool

This method returns True or False based on whether the signature is a valid for the given message.

PublicKey.verify_msg_hash(message_hash, signature) -> bool

Same as PublicKey.verify_msg except that message_hash should be the Keccak hash of the message.

PublicKey.to_compressed_bytes() -> bytes

Returns the compressed representation of this public key.

PublicKey.to_address() -> text

Returns the hex encoded ethereum address for this public key.

PublicKey.to_checksum_address() -> text

Returns the ERC55 checksum formatted ethereum address for this public key.

PublicKey.to_canonical_address() -> bytes

Returns the 20-byte representation of the ethereum address for this public key.

KeyAPI.PrivateKey(private_key_bytes)

The PrivateKey class takes a single argument which must be a bytes string with length 32.

The following methods and properties are available

PrivateKey.public_key

This property holds the PublicKey instance coresponding to this private key.

PrivateKey.sign_msg(message) -> Signature

This method returns a signature for the given message in the form of a Signature instance

  • message must be a byte string.
PrivateKey.sign_msg_hash(message_hash) -> Signature

Same as PrivateKey.sign except that message_hash should be the Keccak hash of the message.

KeyAPI.Signature(signature_bytes=None, vrs=None)

The Signature class can be instantiated in one of two ways.

  • signature_bytes: a bytes string with length 65.
  • vrs: a 3-tuple composed of the integers v, r, and s.

Note: If using the signature_bytes to instantiate, the byte string should be encoded as r_bytes | s_bytes | v_bytes where | represents concatenation. r_bytes and s_bytes should be 32 bytes in length. v_bytes should be a single byte \x00 or \x01.

Signatures are expected to use 1 or 0 for their v value.

The following methods and properties are available

Signature.v

This property returns the v value from the signature as an integer.

Signature.r

This property returns the r value from the signature as an integer.

Signature.s

This property returns the s value from the signature as an integer.

Signature.vrs

This property returns a 3-tuple of (v, r, s).

Signature.verify_msg(message, public_key) -> bool

This method returns True or False based on whether the signature is a valid for the given public key.

  • message: must be a byte string.
  • public_key: must be an instance of PublicKey
Signature.verify_msg_hash(message_hash, public_key) -> bool

Same as Signature.verify_msg except that message_hash should be the Keccak hash of the message.

Signature.recover_public_key_from_msg(message) -> PublicKey

This method returns a PublicKey instance recovered from the signature.

  • message: must be a byte string.
Signature.recover_public_key_from_msg_hash(message_hash) -> PublicKey

Same as Signature.recover_public_key_from_msg except that message_hash should be the Keccak hash of the message.

Exceptions

eth_api.exceptions.ValidationError

This error is raised during instantaition of any of the PublicKey, PrivateKey or Signature classes if their constructor parameters are invalid.

eth_api.exceptions.BadSignature

This error is raised from any of the recover or verify methods involving signatures if the signature is invalid.

Developer Setup

If you would like to hack on eth-keys, please check out the Snake Charmers Tactical Manual for information on how we do:

  • Testing
  • Pull Requests
  • Documentation

We use pre-commit to maintain consistent code style. Once installed, it will run automatically with every commit. You can also run it manually with make lint. If you need to make a commit that skips the pre-commit checks, you can do so with git commit --no-verify.

Development Environment Setup

You can set up your dev environment with:

git clone git@github.com:ethereum/eth-keys.git
cd eth-keys
virtualenv -p python3 venv
. venv/bin/activate
python -m pip install -e ".[dev]"
pre-commit install

Release setup

To release a new version:

make release bump=$$VERSION_PART_TO_BUMP$$
How to bumpversion

The version format for this repo is {major}.{minor}.{patch} for stable, and {major}.{minor}.{patch}-{stage}.{devnum} for unstable (stage can be alpha or beta).

To issue the next version in line, specify which part to bump, like make release bump=minor or make release bump=devnum. This is typically done from the main branch, except when releasing a beta (in which case the beta is released from main, and the previous stable branch is released from said branch).

If you are in a beta version, make release bump=stage will switch to a stable.

To issue an unstable version when the current version is stable, specify the new version explicitly, like make release bump="--new-version 4.0.0-alpha.1 devnum"

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