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odoo12-addon-base-rest

Develop your own high level REST APIs for Odoo thanks to this addon.

    12.0.3.1.0

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=========
Base Rest
=========

.. !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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This addon provides the basis to develop high level REST APIs for Odoo.

As Odoo becomes one of the central pieces of enterprise IT systems, it often
becomes necessary to set up specialized service interfaces, so existing
systems can interact with Odoo.

While the XML-RPC interface of Odoo comes handy in such situations, it
requires a deep understanding of Odoo’s internal data model. When used
extensively, it creates a strong coupling between Odoo internals and client
systems, therefore increasing maintenance costs.

Once developed, an `OpenApi <https://spec.openapis.org/oas/v3.0.3>`_ documentation
is generated from the source code and available via a
`Swagger UI <https://swagger.io/tools/swagger-ui/>`_ served by your odoo server
at `https://my_odoo_server/api-docs`.

**Table of contents**

.. contents::
   :local:

Configuration
=============

Load this module at Odoo startup including in your server config file:

.. code-block:: cfg

    server_wide_modules=base,web,base_rest

If an error occurs when calling a method of a service (ie missing parameter,
..) the system returns only a general description of the problem without
details. This is done on purpose to ensure maximum opacity on implementation
details and therefore lower security issue.

This restriction can be problematic when the services are accessed by an
external system in development. To know the details of an error it is indeed
necessary to have access to the log of the server. It is not always possible
to provide this kind of access. That's why you can configure the server to run
these services in development mode.

To run the REST API in development mode you must add a new section
'**[base_rest]**' with the option '**dev_mode=True**' in the server config
file.

.. code-block:: cfg

    [base_rest]
    dev_mode=True

When the REST API runs in development mode, the original description and a
stack trace is returned in case of error. **Be careful to not use this mode
in production**.

Usage
=====

To add your own REST service you must provides at least 2 classes.

* A Component providing the business logic of your service,
* A Controller to register your service.

The business logic of your service must be implemented into a component
(``odoo.addons.component.core.Component``) that inherit from
'base.rest.service'

Initially, base_rest expose by default all public methods defined in a service.
The conventions for accessing methods via HTTP were as follows:

* The method ``def get(self, _id)`` if defined, is accessible via HTTP GET routes ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>`` and ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>/get``.
* The method ``def search(self, **params)`` if defined, is accessible via the HTTP GET routes ``<string:_service_name>/`` and ``<string:_service_name>/search``.
* The method ``def delete(self, _id)`` if defined, is accessible via the HTTP DELETE route ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>``.
* The ``def update(self, _id, **params)`` method, if defined, is accessible via the HTTP PUT route ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>``.
* Other methods are only accessible via HTTP POST routes ``<string:_service_name>`` or ``<string:_service_name>/<string:method_name>`` or ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>`` or ``<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>/<string:method_name>``

.. code-block:: python

    from odoo.addons.component.core import Component


    class PingService(Component):
        _inherit = 'base.rest.service'
        _name = 'ping.service'
        _usage = 'ping'
        _collection = 'my_module.services'


        # The following method are 'public' and can be called from the controller.
        def get(self, _id, message):
            return {
                'response': 'Get called with message ' + message}

        def search(self, message):
            return {
                'response': 'Search called search with message ' + message}

        def update(self, _id, message):
            return {'response': 'PUT called with message ' + message}

        # pylint:disable=method-required-super
        def create(self, **params):
            return {'response': 'POST called with message ' + params['message']}

        def delete(self, _id):
            return {'response': 'DELETE called with id %s ' % _id}

        # Validator
        def _validator_search(self):
            return {'message': {'type': 'string'}}

        # Validator
        def _validator_get(self):
            # no parameters by default
            return {}

        def _validator_update(self):
            return {'message': {'type': 'string'}}

        def _validator_create(self):
            return {'message': {'type': 'string'}}

Once you have implemented your services (ping, ...), you must tell to Odoo
how to access to these services. This process is done by implementing a
controller that inherits from  ``odoo.addons.base_rest.controllers.main.RestController``

.. code-block:: python

    from odoo.addons.base_rest.controllers import main

    class MyRestController(main.RestController):
        _root_path = '/my_services_api/'
        _collection_name = my_module.services

In your controller, _'root_path' is used to specify the root of the path to
access to your services and '_collection_name' is the name of the collection
providing the business logic for the requested service/


By inheriting from ``RestController`` the following routes will be registered
to access to your services

.. code-block:: python

    @route([
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/search',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>/get'
    ], methods=['GET'], auth="user", csrf=False)
    def get(self, _service_name, _id=None, **params):
        method_name = 'get' if _id else 'search'
        return self._process_method(_service_name, method_name, _id, params)

    @route([
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<string:method_name>',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>',
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>/<string:method_name>'
    ], methods=['POST'], auth="user", csrf=False)
    def modify(self, _service_name, _id=None, method_name=None, **params):
        if not method_name:
            method_name = 'update' if _id else 'create'
        if method_name == 'get':
            _logger.error("HTTP POST with method name 'get' is not allowed. "
                          "(service name: %s)", _service_name)
            raise BadRequest()
        return self._process_method(_service_name, method_name, _id, params)

    @route([
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>',
    ], methods=['PUT'], auth="user", csrf=False)
    def update(self, _service_name, _id, **params):
        return self._process_method(_service_name, 'update', _id, params)

    @route([
        ROOT_PATH + '<string:_service_name>/<int:_id>',
    ], methods=['DELETE'], auth="user", csrf=False)
    def delete(self, _service_name, _id):
        return self._process_method(_service_name, 'delete', _id)


As result an HTTP GET call to 'http://my_odoo/my_services_api/ping' will be
dispatched to the method ``PingService.search``

In addition to easily exposing your methods, the module allows you to define
data schemas to which the exchanged data must conform. These schemas are defined
on the basis of `Cerberus schemas <https://docs.python-cerberus.org/en/stable/>`_
and associated to the methods using the
following naming convention. For a method `my_method`:

* ``def _validator_my_method(self):`` will be called to get the schema required to
  validate the input parameters.
* ``def _validator_return_my_method(self):`` if defined, will be called to get
  the schema used to validate the response.

In order to offer even more flexibility, a new API has been developed.

This new API replaces the implicit approach used to expose a service by the use
of a python decorator to explicitly mark a method as being available via the
REST API: ``odoo.addons.base_rest.restapi.method``.


.. code-block:: python

    class PartnerNewApiService(Component):
        _inherit = "base.rest.service"
        _name = "partner.new_api.service"
        _usage = "partner"
        _collection = "base.rest.demo.new_api.services"
        _description = """
            Partner New API Services
            Services developed with the new api provided by base_rest
        """

        @restapi.method(
            [(["/<int:id>/get", "/<int:id>"], "GET")],
            output_param=restapi.CerberusValidator("_get_partner_schema"),
            auth="public",
        )
        def get(self, _id):
            return {"name": self.env["res.partner"].browse(_id).name}

        def _get_partner_schema(self):
            return {
                "name": {"type": "string", "required": True}
            }

Thanks to this new api, you are now free to specify your own routes but also
to use other object types as parameter or response to your methods.
For example, `base_rest_datamodel` allows you to use Datamodel object instance
into your services.

.. code-block:: python

    from marshmallow import fields

    from odoo.addons.base_rest import restapi
    from odoo.addons.component.core import Component
    from odoo.addons.datamodel.core import Datamodel


    class PartnerSearchParam(Datamodel):
        _name = "partner.search.param"

        id = fields.Integer(required=False, allow_none=False)
        name = fields.String(required=False, allow_none=False)


    class PartnerShortInfo(Datamodel):
        _name = "partner.short.info"

        id = fields.Integer(required=True, allow_none=False)
        name = fields.String(required=True, allow_none=False)


    class PartnerNewApiService(Component):
        _inherit = "base.rest.service"
        _name = "partner.new_api.service"
        _usage = "partner"
        _collection = "base.rest.demo.new_api.services"
        _description = """
            Partner New API Services
            Services developed with the new api provided by base_rest
        """

        @restapi.method(
            [(["/", "/search"], "GET")],
            input_param=restapi.Datamodel("partner.search.param"),
            output_param=restapi.Datamodel("partner.short.info", is_list=True),
            auth="public",
        )
        def search(self, partner_search_param):
            """
            Search for partners
            :param partner_search_param: An instance of partner.search.param
            :return: List of partner.short.info
            """
            domain = []
            if partner_search_param.name:
                domain.append(("name", "like", partner_search_param.name))
            if partner_search_param.id:
                domain.append(("id", "=", partner_search_param.id))
            res = []
            PartnerShortInfo = self.env.datamodels["partner.short.info"]
            for p in self.env["res.partner"].search(domain):
                res.append(PartnerShortInfo(id=p.id, name=p.name))
            return res

Known issues / Roadmap
======================

The `roadmap <https://github.com/OCA/rest-framework/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+label%3Aenhancement+label%3Abase_rest>`_
and `known issues <https://github.com/OCA/rest-framework/issues?q=is%3Aopen+is%3Aissue+label%3Abug+label%3Abase_rest>`_ can
be found on GitHub.

Changelog
=========

12.0.2.0.1
~~~~~~~~~~

* _validator_...() methods can now return a cerberus ``Validator`` object
  instead of a schema dictionnary, for additional flexibility (e.g. allowing
  validator options such as ``allow_unknown``).

12.0.2.0.0
~~~~~~~~~~

* Licence changed from AGPL-3 to LGPL-3

12.0.1.0.1
~~~~~~~~~~

* Fix issue when rendering the jsonapi documentation if no documentation is
  provided on a method part of the REST api.

12.0.1.0.0
~~~~~~~~~~

First official version. The addon has been incubated into the
`Shopinvader repository <https://github.com/akretion/odoo-shopinvader>`_ from
Akretion. For more information you need to look at the git log.

Bug Tracker
===========

Bugs are tracked on `GitHub Issues <https://github.com/OCA/rest-framework/issues>`_.
In case of trouble, please check there if your issue has already been reported.
If you spotted it first, help us smashing it by providing a detailed and welcomed
`feedback <https://github.com/OCA/rest-framework/issues/new?body=module:%20base_rest%0Aversion:%2012.0%0A%0A**Steps%20to%20reproduce**%0A-%20...%0A%0A**Current%20behavior**%0A%0A**Expected%20behavior**>`_.

Do not contact contributors directly about support or help with technical issues.

Credits
=======

Authors
~~~~~~~

* ACSONE SA/NV

Contributors
~~~~~~~~~~~~

* Laurent Mignon <laurent.mignon@acsone.eu>
* Sébastien Beau <sebastien.beau@akretion.com>

Maintainers
~~~~~~~~~~~

This module is maintained by the OCA.

.. image:: https://odoo-community.org/logo.png
   :alt: Odoo Community Association
   :target: https://odoo-community.org

OCA, or the Odoo Community Association, is a nonprofit organization whose
mission is to support the collaborative development of Odoo features and
promote its widespread use.

.. |maintainer-lmignon| image:: https://github.com/lmignon.png?size=40px
    :target: https://github.com/lmignon
    :alt: lmignon

Current `maintainer <https://odoo-community.org/page/maintainer-role>`__:

|maintainer-lmignon| 

This module is part of the `OCA/rest-framework <https://github.com/OCA/rest-framework/tree/12.0/base_rest>`_ project on GitHub.

You are welcome to contribute. To learn how please visit https://odoo-community.org/page/Contribute.


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