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responses

A utility library for mocking out the `requests` Python library.

    0.25.0

Maintainers
2

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Responses
=========

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    :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/responses/

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    :target: https://pypi.org/project/responses/

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   :target: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/responses/

.. image:: https://codecov.io/gh/getsentry/responses/branch/master/graph/badge.svg
    :target: https://codecov.io/gh/getsentry/responses/

A utility library for mocking out the ``requests`` Python library.

..  note::

    Responses requires Python 3.8 or newer, and requests >= 2.30.0


Table of Contents
-----------------

.. contents::


Installing
----------

``pip install responses``


Deprecations and Migration Path
-------------------------------

Here you will find a list of deprecated functionality and a migration path for each.
Please ensure to update your code according to the guidance.

.. list-table:: Deprecation and Migration
   :widths: 50 25 50
   :header-rows: 1

   * - Deprecated Functionality
     - Deprecated in Version
     - Migration Path
   * - ``responses.json_params_matcher``
     - 0.14.0
     - ``responses.matchers.json_params_matcher``
   * - ``responses.urlencoded_params_matcher``
     - 0.14.0
     - ``responses.matchers.urlencoded_params_matcher``
   * - ``stream`` argument in ``Response`` and ``CallbackResponse``
     - 0.15.0
     - Use ``stream`` argument in request directly.
   * - ``match_querystring`` argument in ``Response`` and ``CallbackResponse``.
     - 0.17.0
     - Use ``responses.matchers.query_param_matcher`` or ``responses.matchers.query_string_matcher``
   * - ``responses.assert_all_requests_are_fired``, ``responses.passthru_prefixes``, ``responses.target``
     - 0.20.0
     - Use ``responses.mock.assert_all_requests_are_fired``,
       ``responses.mock.passthru_prefixes``, ``responses.mock.target`` instead.

BETA Features
-------------
Below you can find a list of BETA features. Although we will try to keep the API backwards compatible
with released version, we reserve the right to change these APIs before they are considered stable. Please share your feedback via
`GitHub Issues <https://github.com/getsentry/responses/issues>`_.

Record Responses to files
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

You can perform real requests to the server and ``responses`` will automatically record the output to the
file. Recorded data is stored in `YAML <https://yaml.org>`_ format.

Apply ``@responses._recorder.record(file_path="out.yaml")`` decorator to any function where you perform
requests to record responses to ``out.yaml`` file.

Following code

.. code-block:: python

    import requests
    from responses import _recorder


    def another():
        rsp = requests.get("https://httpstat.us/500")
        rsp = requests.get("https://httpstat.us/202")


    @_recorder.record(file_path="out.yaml")
    def test_recorder():
        rsp = requests.get("https://httpstat.us/404")
        rsp = requests.get("https://httpbin.org/status/wrong")
        another()

will produce next output:

.. code-block:: yaml

    responses:
    - response:
        auto_calculate_content_length: false
        body: 404 Not Found
        content_type: text/plain
        method: GET
        status: 404
        url: https://httpstat.us/404
    - response:
        auto_calculate_content_length: false
        body: Invalid status code
        content_type: text/plain
        method: GET
        status: 400
        url: https://httpbin.org/status/wrong
    - response:
        auto_calculate_content_length: false
        body: 500 Internal Server Error
        content_type: text/plain
        method: GET
        status: 500
        url: https://httpstat.us/500
    - response:
        auto_calculate_content_length: false
        body: 202 Accepted
        content_type: text/plain
        method: GET
        status: 202
        url: https://httpstat.us/202


Replay responses (populate registry) from files
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

You can populate your active registry from a ``yaml`` file with recorded responses.
(See `Record Responses to files`_ to understand how to obtain a file).
To do that you need to execute ``responses._add_from_file(file_path="out.yaml")`` within
an activated decorator or a context manager.

The following code example registers a ``patch`` response, then all responses present in
``out.yaml`` file and a ``post`` response at the end.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses


    @responses.activate
    def run():
        responses.patch("http://httpbin.org")
        responses._add_from_file(file_path="out.yaml")
        responses.post("http://httpbin.org/form")


    run()

Basics
------

The core of ``responses`` comes from registering mock responses and covering test function
with ``responses.activate`` decorator. ``responses`` provides similar interface as ``requests``.

Main Interface
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

* responses.add(``Response`` or ``Response args``) - allows either to register ``Response`` object or directly
  provide arguments of ``Response`` object. See `Response Parameters`_

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_simple():
        # Register via 'Response' object
        rsp1 = responses.Response(
            method="PUT",
            url="http://example.com",
        )
        responses.add(rsp1)
        # register via direct arguments
        responses.add(
            responses.GET,
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"error": "not found"},
            status=404,
        )

        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        resp2 = requests.put("http://example.com")

        assert resp.json() == {"error": "not found"}
        assert resp.status_code == 404

        assert resp2.status_code == 200
        assert resp2.request.method == "PUT"


If you attempt to fetch a url which doesn't hit a match, ``responses`` will raise
a ``ConnectionError``:

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests

    from requests.exceptions import ConnectionError


    @responses.activate
    def test_simple():
        with pytest.raises(ConnectionError):
            requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")


Shortcuts
^^^^^^^^^

Shortcuts provide a shorten version of ``responses.add()`` where method argument is prefilled

* responses.delete(``Response args``) - register DELETE response
* responses.get(``Response args``) - register GET response
* responses.head(``Response args``) - register HEAD response
* responses.options(``Response args``) - register OPTIONS response
* responses.patch(``Response args``) - register PATCH response
* responses.post(``Response args``) - register POST response
* responses.put(``Response args``) - register PUT response

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_simple():
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"type": "get"},
        )

        responses.post(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"type": "post"},
        )

        responses.patch(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"type": "patch"},
        )

        resp_get = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        resp_post = requests.post("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        resp_patch = requests.patch("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")

        assert resp_get.json() == {"type": "get"}
        assert resp_post.json() == {"type": "post"}
        assert resp_patch.json() == {"type": "patch"}

Responses as a context manager
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Instead of wrapping the whole function with decorator you can use a context manager.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    def test_my_api():
        with responses.RequestsMock() as rsps:
            rsps.add(
                responses.GET,
                "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
                body="{}",
                status=200,
                content_type="application/json",
            )
            resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")

            assert resp.status_code == 200

        # outside the context manager requests will hit the remote server
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        resp.status_code == 404


Response Parameters
-------------------

The following attributes can be passed to a Response mock:

method (``str``)
    The HTTP method (GET, POST, etc).

url (``str`` or ``compiled regular expression``)
    The full resource URL.

match_querystring (``bool``)
    DEPRECATED: Use ``responses.matchers.query_param_matcher`` or
    ``responses.matchers.query_string_matcher``

    Include the query string when matching requests.
    Enabled by default if the response URL contains a query string,
    disabled if it doesn't or the URL is a regular expression.

body (``str`` or ``BufferedReader`` or ``Exception``)
    The response body. Read more `Exception as Response body`_

json
    A Python object representing the JSON response body. Automatically configures
    the appropriate Content-Type.

status (``int``)
    The HTTP status code.

content_type (``content_type``)
    Defaults to ``text/plain``.

headers (``dict``)
    Response headers.

stream (``bool``)
    DEPRECATED: use ``stream`` argument in request directly

auto_calculate_content_length (``bool``)
    Disabled by default. Automatically calculates the length of a supplied string or JSON body.

match (``tuple``)
    An iterable (``tuple`` is recommended) of callbacks to match requests
    based on request attributes.
    Current module provides multiple matchers that you can use to match:

    * body contents in JSON format
    * body contents in URL encoded data format
    * request query parameters
    * request query string (similar to query parameters but takes string as input)
    * kwargs provided to request e.g. ``stream``, ``verify``
    * 'multipart/form-data' content and headers in request
    * request headers
    * request fragment identifier

    Alternatively user can create custom matcher.
    Read more `Matching Requests`_


Exception as Response body
--------------------------

You can pass an ``Exception`` as the body to trigger an error on the request:

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_simple():
        responses.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar", body=Exception("..."))
        with pytest.raises(Exception):
            requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")


Matching Requests
-----------------

Matching Request Body Contents
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

When adding responses for endpoints that are sent request data you can add
matchers to ensure your code is sending the right parameters and provide
different responses based on the request body contents. ``responses`` provides
matchers for JSON and URL-encoded request bodies.

URL-encoded data
""""""""""""""""

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def test_calc_api():
        responses.post(
            url="http://calc.com/sum",
            body="4",
            match=[matchers.urlencoded_params_matcher({"left": "1", "right": "3"})],
        )
        requests.post("http://calc.com/sum", data={"left": 1, "right": 3})


JSON encoded data
"""""""""""""""""

Matching JSON encoded data can be done with ``matchers.json_params_matcher()``.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def test_calc_api():
        responses.post(
            url="http://example.com/",
            body="one",
            match=[
                matchers.json_params_matcher({"page": {"name": "first", "type": "json"}})
            ],
        )
        resp = requests.request(
            "POST",
            "http://example.com/",
            headers={"Content-Type": "application/json"},
            json={"page": {"name": "first", "type": "json"}},
        )


Query Parameters Matcher
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Query Parameters as a Dictionary
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

You can use the ``matchers.query_param_matcher`` function to match
against the ``params`` request parameter. Just use the same dictionary as you
will use in ``params`` argument in ``request``.

Note, do not use query parameters as part of the URL. Avoid using ``match_querystring``
deprecated argument.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def test_calc_api():
        url = "http://example.com/test"
        params = {"hello": "world", "I am": "a big test"}
        responses.get(
            url=url,
            body="test",
            match=[matchers.query_param_matcher(params)],
        )

        resp = requests.get(url, params=params)

        constructed_url = r"http://example.com/test?I+am=a+big+test&hello=world"
        assert resp.url == constructed_url
        assert resp.request.url == constructed_url
        assert resp.request.params == params

By default, matcher will validate that all parameters match strictly.
To validate that only parameters specified in the matcher are present in original request
use ``strict_match=False``.

Query Parameters as a String
""""""""""""""""""""""""""""

As alternative, you can use query string value in ``matchers.query_string_matcher`` to match
query parameters in your request

.. code-block:: python

    import requests
    import responses
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def my_func():
        responses.get(
            "https://httpbin.org/get",
            match=[matchers.query_string_matcher("didi=pro&test=1")],
        )
        resp = requests.get("https://httpbin.org/get", params={"test": 1, "didi": "pro"})


    my_func()


Request Keyword Arguments Matcher
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

To validate request arguments use the ``matchers.request_kwargs_matcher`` function to match
against the request kwargs.

Only following arguments are supported: ``timeout``, ``verify``, ``proxies``, ``stream``, ``cert``.

Note, only arguments provided to ``matchers.request_kwargs_matcher`` will be validated.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers

    with responses.RequestsMock(assert_all_requests_are_fired=False) as rsps:
        req_kwargs = {
            "stream": True,
            "verify": False,
        }
        rsps.add(
            "GET",
            "http://111.com",
            match=[matchers.request_kwargs_matcher(req_kwargs)],
        )

        requests.get("http://111.com", stream=True)

        # >>>  Arguments don't match: {stream: True, verify: True} doesn't match {stream: True, verify: False}


Request multipart/form-data Data Validation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

To validate request body and headers for ``multipart/form-data`` data you can use
``matchers.multipart_matcher``. The ``data``, and ``files`` parameters provided will be compared
to the request:

.. code-block:: python

    import requests
    import responses
    from responses.matchers import multipart_matcher


    @responses.activate
    def my_func():
        req_data = {"some": "other", "data": "fields"}
        req_files = {"file_name": b"Old World!"}
        responses.post(
            url="http://httpbin.org/post",
            match=[multipart_matcher(req_files, data=req_data)],
        )
        resp = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", files={"file_name": b"New World!"})


    my_func()
    # >>> raises ConnectionError: multipart/form-data doesn't match. Request body differs.

Request Fragment Identifier Validation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

To validate request URL fragment identifier you can use ``matchers.fragment_identifier_matcher``.
The matcher takes fragment string (everything after ``#`` sign) as input for comparison:

.. code-block:: python

    import requests
    import responses
    from responses.matchers import fragment_identifier_matcher


    @responses.activate
    def run():
        url = "http://example.com?ab=xy&zed=qwe#test=1&foo=bar"
        responses.get(
            url,
            match=[fragment_identifier_matcher("test=1&foo=bar")],
            body=b"test",
        )

        # two requests to check reversed order of fragment identifier
        resp = requests.get("http://example.com?ab=xy&zed=qwe#test=1&foo=bar")
        resp = requests.get("http://example.com?zed=qwe&ab=xy#foo=bar&test=1")


    run()

Request Headers Validation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

When adding responses you can specify matchers to ensure that your code is
sending the right headers and provide different responses based on the request
headers.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def test_content_type():
        responses.get(
            url="http://example.com/",
            body="hello world",
            match=[matchers.header_matcher({"Accept": "text/plain"})],
        )

        responses.get(
            url="http://example.com/",
            json={"content": "hello world"},
            match=[matchers.header_matcher({"Accept": "application/json"})],
        )

        # request in reverse order to how they were added!
        resp = requests.get("http://example.com/", headers={"Accept": "application/json"})
        assert resp.json() == {"content": "hello world"}

        resp = requests.get("http://example.com/", headers={"Accept": "text/plain"})
        assert resp.text == "hello world"

Because ``requests`` will send several standard headers in addition to what was
specified by your code, request headers that are additional to the ones
passed to the matcher are ignored by default. You can change this behaviour by
passing ``strict_match=True`` to the matcher to ensure that only the headers
that you're expecting are sent and no others. Note that you will probably have
to use a ``PreparedRequest`` in your code to ensure that ``requests`` doesn't
include any additional headers.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests
    from responses import matchers


    @responses.activate
    def test_content_type():
        responses.get(
            url="http://example.com/",
            body="hello world",
            match=[matchers.header_matcher({"Accept": "text/plain"}, strict_match=True)],
        )

        # this will fail because requests adds its own headers
        with pytest.raises(ConnectionError):
            requests.get("http://example.com/", headers={"Accept": "text/plain"})

        # a prepared request where you overwrite the headers before sending will work
        session = requests.Session()
        prepped = session.prepare_request(
            requests.Request(
                method="GET",
                url="http://example.com/",
            )
        )
        prepped.headers = {"Accept": "text/plain"}

        resp = session.send(prepped)
        assert resp.text == "hello world"


Creating Custom Matcher
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

If your application requires other encodings or different data validation you can build
your own matcher that returns ``Tuple[matches: bool, reason: str]``.
Where boolean represents ``True`` or ``False`` if the request parameters match and
the string is a reason in case of match failure. Your matcher can
expect a ``PreparedRequest`` parameter to be provided by ``responses``.

Note, ``PreparedRequest`` is customized and has additional attributes ``params`` and ``req_kwargs``.

Response Registry
---------------------------

Default Registry
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

By default, ``responses`` will search all registered ``Response`` objects and
return a match. If only one ``Response`` is registered, the registry is kept unchanged.
However, if multiple matches are found for the same request, then first match is returned and
removed from registry.

Ordered Registry
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

In some scenarios it is important to preserve the order of the requests and responses.
You can use ``registries.OrderedRegistry`` to force all ``Response`` objects to be dependent
on the insertion order and invocation index.
In following example we add multiple ``Response`` objects that target the same URL. However,
you can see, that status code will depend on the invocation order.


.. code-block:: python

    import requests

    import responses
    from responses.registries import OrderedRegistry


    @responses.activate(registry=OrderedRegistry)
    def test_invocation_index():
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"msg": "not found"},
            status=404,
        )
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"msg": "OK"},
            status=200,
        )
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"msg": "OK"},
            status=200,
        )
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            json={"msg": "not found"},
            status=404,
        )

        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 404
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 200
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 200
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 404


Custom Registry
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Built-in ``registries`` are suitable for most of use cases, but to handle special conditions, you can
implement custom registry which must follow interface of ``registries.FirstMatchRegistry``.
Redefining the ``find`` method will allow you to create custom search logic and return
appropriate ``Response``

Example that shows how to set custom registry

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    from responses import registries


    class CustomRegistry(registries.FirstMatchRegistry):
        pass


    print("Before tests:", responses.mock.get_registry())
    """ Before tests: <responses.registries.FirstMatchRegistry object> """


    # using function decorator
    @responses.activate(registry=CustomRegistry)
    def run():
        print("Within test:", responses.mock.get_registry())
        """ Within test: <__main__.CustomRegistry object> """


    run()

    print("After test:", responses.mock.get_registry())
    """ After test: <responses.registries.FirstMatchRegistry object> """

    # using context manager
    with responses.RequestsMock(registry=CustomRegistry) as rsps:
        print("In context manager:", rsps.get_registry())
        """ In context manager: <__main__.CustomRegistry object> """

    print("After exit from context manager:", responses.mock.get_registry())
    """
    After exit from context manager: <responses.registries.FirstMatchRegistry object>
    """

Dynamic Responses
-----------------

You can utilize callbacks to provide dynamic responses. The callback must return
a tuple of (``status``, ``headers``, ``body``).

.. code-block:: python

    import json

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_calc_api():
        def request_callback(request):
            payload = json.loads(request.body)
            resp_body = {"value": sum(payload["numbers"])}
            headers = {"request-id": "728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13"}
            return (200, headers, json.dumps(resp_body))

        responses.add_callback(
            responses.POST,
            "http://calc.com/sum",
            callback=request_callback,
            content_type="application/json",
        )

        resp = requests.post(
            "http://calc.com/sum",
            json.dumps({"numbers": [1, 2, 3]}),
            headers={"content-type": "application/json"},
        )

        assert resp.json() == {"value": 6}

        assert len(responses.calls) == 1
        assert responses.calls[0].request.url == "http://calc.com/sum"
        assert responses.calls[0].response.text == '{"value": 6}'
        assert (
            responses.calls[0].response.headers["request-id"]
            == "728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13"
        )

You can also pass a compiled regex to ``add_callback`` to match multiple urls:

.. code-block:: python

    import re, json

    from functools import reduce

    import responses
    import requests

    operators = {
        "sum": lambda x, y: x + y,
        "prod": lambda x, y: x * y,
        "pow": lambda x, y: x**y,
    }


    @responses.activate
    def test_regex_url():
        def request_callback(request):
            payload = json.loads(request.body)
            operator_name = request.path_url[1:]

            operator = operators[operator_name]

            resp_body = {"value": reduce(operator, payload["numbers"])}
            headers = {"request-id": "728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13"}
            return (200, headers, json.dumps(resp_body))

        responses.add_callback(
            responses.POST,
            re.compile("http://calc.com/(sum|prod|pow|unsupported)"),
            callback=request_callback,
            content_type="application/json",
        )

        resp = requests.post(
            "http://calc.com/prod",
            json.dumps({"numbers": [2, 3, 4]}),
            headers={"content-type": "application/json"},
        )
        assert resp.json() == {"value": 24}


    test_regex_url()


If you want to pass extra keyword arguments to the callback function, for example when reusing
a callback function to give a slightly different result, you can use ``functools.partial``:

.. code-block:: python

    from functools import partial


    def request_callback(request, id=None):
        payload = json.loads(request.body)
        resp_body = {"value": sum(payload["numbers"])}
        headers = {"request-id": id}
        return (200, headers, json.dumps(resp_body))


    responses.add_callback(
        responses.POST,
        "http://calc.com/sum",
        callback=partial(request_callback, id="728d329e-0e86-11e4-a748-0c84dc037c13"),
        content_type="application/json",
    )


Integration with unit test frameworks
-------------------------------------

Responses as a ``pytest`` fixture
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. code-block:: python

    @pytest.fixture
    def mocked_responses():
        with responses.RequestsMock() as rsps:
            yield rsps


    def test_api(mocked_responses):
        mocked_responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            body="{}",
            status=200,
            content_type="application/json",
        )
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 200

Add default responses for each test
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

When run with ``unittest`` tests, this can be used to set up some
generic class-level responses, that may be complemented by each test.
Similar interface could be applied in ``pytest`` framework.

.. code-block:: python

    class TestMyApi(unittest.TestCase):
        def setUp(self):
            responses.get("https://example.com", body="within setup")
            # here go other self.responses.add(...)

        @responses.activate
        def test_my_func(self):
            responses.get(
                "https://httpbin.org/get",
                match=[matchers.query_param_matcher({"test": "1", "didi": "pro"})],
                body="within test",
            )
            resp = requests.get("https://example.com")
            resp2 = requests.get(
                "https://httpbin.org/get", params={"test": "1", "didi": "pro"}
            )
            print(resp.text)
            # >>> within setup
            print(resp2.text)
            # >>> within test


RequestMock methods: start, stop, reset
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

``responses`` has ``start``, ``stop``, ``reset`` methods very analogous to
`unittest.mock.patch <https://docs.python.org/3/library/unittest.mock.html#patch-methods-start-and-stop>`_.
These make it simpler to do requests mocking in ``setup`` methods or where
you want to do multiple patches without nesting decorators or with statements.

.. code-block:: python

    class TestUnitTestPatchSetup:
        def setup(self):
            """Creates ``RequestsMock`` instance and starts it."""
            self.r_mock = responses.RequestsMock(assert_all_requests_are_fired=True)
            self.r_mock.start()

            # optionally some default responses could be registered
            self.r_mock.get("https://example.com", status=505)
            self.r_mock.put("https://example.com", status=506)

        def teardown(self):
            """Stops and resets RequestsMock instance.

            If ``assert_all_requests_are_fired`` is set to ``True``, will raise an error
            if some requests were not processed.
            """
            self.r_mock.stop()
            self.r_mock.reset()

        def test_function(self):
            resp = requests.get("https://example.com")
            assert resp.status_code == 505

            resp = requests.put("https://example.com")
            assert resp.status_code == 506


Assertions on declared responses
--------------------------------

When used as a context manager, Responses will, by default, raise an assertion
error if a url was registered but not accessed. This can be disabled by passing
the ``assert_all_requests_are_fired`` value:

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    def test_my_api():
        with responses.RequestsMock(assert_all_requests_are_fired=False) as rsps:
            rsps.add(
                responses.GET,
                "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
                body="{}",
                status=200,
                content_type="application/json",
            )

Assert Request Call Count
-------------------------

Assert based on ``Response`` object
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Each ``Response`` object has ``call_count`` attribute that could be inspected
to check how many times each request was matched.

.. code-block:: python

    @responses.activate
    def test_call_count_with_matcher():
        rsp = responses.get(
            "http://www.example.com",
            match=(matchers.query_param_matcher({}),),
        )
        rsp2 = responses.get(
            "http://www.example.com",
            match=(matchers.query_param_matcher({"hello": "world"}),),
            status=777,
        )
        requests.get("http://www.example.com")
        resp1 = requests.get("http://www.example.com")
        requests.get("http://www.example.com?hello=world")
        resp2 = requests.get("http://www.example.com?hello=world")

        assert resp1.status_code == 200
        assert resp2.status_code == 777

        assert rsp.call_count == 2
        assert rsp2.call_count == 2

Assert based on the exact URL
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Assert that the request was called exactly n times.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_assert_call_count():
        responses.get("http://example.com")

        requests.get("http://example.com")
        assert responses.assert_call_count("http://example.com", 1) is True

        requests.get("http://example.com")
        with pytest.raises(AssertionError) as excinfo:
            responses.assert_call_count("http://example.com", 1)
        assert (
            "Expected URL 'http://example.com' to be called 1 times. Called 2 times."
            in str(excinfo.value)
        )


    @responses.activate
    def test_assert_call_count_always_match_qs():
        responses.get("http://www.example.com")
        requests.get("http://www.example.com")
        requests.get("http://www.example.com?hello=world")

        # One call on each url, querystring is matched by default
        responses.assert_call_count("http://www.example.com", 1) is True
        responses.assert_call_count("http://www.example.com?hello=world", 1) is True


Assert Request Calls data
-------------------------

``Request`` object has ``calls`` list which elements correspond to ``Call`` objects
in the global list of ``Registry``. This can be useful when the order of requests is not
guaranteed, but you need to check their correctness, for example in multithreaded
applications.

.. code-block:: python

    import concurrent.futures
    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_assert_calls_on_resp():
        rsp1 = responses.patch("http://www.foo.bar/1/", status=200)
        rsp2 = responses.patch("http://www.foo.bar/2/", status=400)
        rsp3 = responses.patch("http://www.foo.bar/3/", status=200)

        def update_user(uid, is_active):
            url = f"http://www.foo.bar/{uid}/"
            response = requests.patch(url, json={"is_active": is_active})
            return response

        with concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(max_workers=3) as executor:
            future_to_uid = {
                executor.submit(update_user, uid, is_active): uid
                for (uid, is_active) in [("3", True), ("2", True), ("1", False)]
            }
            for future in concurrent.futures.as_completed(future_to_uid):
                uid = future_to_uid[future]
                response = future.result()
                print(f"{uid} updated with {response.status_code} status code")

        assert len(responses.calls) == 3  # total calls count

        assert rsp1.call_count == 1
        assert rsp1.calls[0] in responses.calls
        assert rsp1.calls[0].response.status_code == 200
        assert json.loads(rsp1.calls[0].request.body) == {"is_active": False}

        assert rsp2.call_count == 1
        assert rsp2.calls[0] in responses.calls
        assert rsp2.calls[0].response.status_code == 400
        assert json.loads(rsp2.calls[0].request.body) == {"is_active": True}

        assert rsp3.call_count == 1
        assert rsp3.calls[0] in responses.calls
        assert rsp3.calls[0].response.status_code == 200
        assert json.loads(rsp3.calls[0].request.body) == {"is_active": True}

Multiple Responses
------------------

You can also add multiple responses for the same url:

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_my_api():
        responses.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar", status=500)
        responses.get(
            "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
            body="{}",
            status=200,
            content_type="application/json",
        )

        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 500
        resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
        assert resp.status_code == 200


URL Redirection
---------------

In the following example you can see how to create a redirection chain and add custom exception that will be raised
in the execution chain and contain the history of redirects.

..  code-block::

    A -> 301 redirect -> B
    B -> 301 redirect -> C
    C -> connection issue

.. code-block:: python

    import pytest
    import requests

    import responses


    @responses.activate
    def test_redirect():
        # create multiple Response objects where first two contain redirect headers
        rsp1 = responses.Response(
            responses.GET,
            "http://example.com/1",
            status=301,
            headers={"Location": "http://example.com/2"},
        )
        rsp2 = responses.Response(
            responses.GET,
            "http://example.com/2",
            status=301,
            headers={"Location": "http://example.com/3"},
        )
        rsp3 = responses.Response(responses.GET, "http://example.com/3", status=200)

        # register above generated Responses in ``response`` module
        responses.add(rsp1)
        responses.add(rsp2)
        responses.add(rsp3)

        # do the first request in order to generate genuine ``requests`` response
        # this object will contain genuine attributes of the response, like ``history``
        rsp = requests.get("http://example.com/1")
        responses.calls.reset()

        # customize exception with ``response`` attribute
        my_error = requests.ConnectionError("custom error")
        my_error.response = rsp

        # update body of the 3rd response with Exception, this will be raised during execution
        rsp3.body = my_error

        with pytest.raises(requests.ConnectionError) as exc_info:
            requests.get("http://example.com/1")

        assert exc_info.value.args[0] == "custom error"
        assert rsp1.url in exc_info.value.response.history[0].url
        assert rsp2.url in exc_info.value.response.history[1].url


Validate ``Retry`` mechanism
----------------------------

If you are using the ``Retry`` features of ``urllib3`` and want to cover scenarios that test your retry limits, you can test those scenarios with ``responses`` as well. The best approach will be to use an `Ordered Registry`_

.. code-block:: python

    import requests

    import responses
    from responses import registries
    from urllib3.util import Retry


    @responses.activate(registry=registries.OrderedRegistry)
    def test_max_retries():
        url = "https://example.com"
        rsp1 = responses.get(url, body="Error", status=500)
        rsp2 = responses.get(url, body="Error", status=500)
        rsp3 = responses.get(url, body="Error", status=500)
        rsp4 = responses.get(url, body="OK", status=200)

        session = requests.Session()

        adapter = requests.adapters.HTTPAdapter(
            max_retries=Retry(
                total=4,
                backoff_factor=0.1,
                status_forcelist=[500],
                method_whitelist=["GET", "POST", "PATCH"],
            )
        )
        session.mount("https://", adapter)

        resp = session.get(url)

        assert resp.status_code == 200
        assert rsp1.call_count == 1
        assert rsp2.call_count == 1
        assert rsp3.call_count == 1
        assert rsp4.call_count == 1


Using a callback to modify the response
---------------------------------------

If you use customized processing in ``requests`` via subclassing/mixins, or if you
have library tools that interact with ``requests`` at a low level, you may need
to add extended processing to the mocked Response object to fully simulate the
environment for your tests.  A ``response_callback`` can be used, which will be
wrapped by the library before being returned to the caller.  The callback
accepts a ``response`` as it's single argument, and is expected to return a
single ``response`` object.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    def response_callback(resp):
        resp.callback_processed = True
        return resp


    with responses.RequestsMock(response_callback=response_callback) as m:
        m.add(responses.GET, "http://example.com", body=b"test")
        resp = requests.get("http://example.com")
        assert resp.text == "test"
        assert hasattr(resp, "callback_processed")
        assert resp.callback_processed is True


Passing through real requests
-----------------------------

In some cases you may wish to allow for certain requests to pass through responses
and hit a real server. This can be done with the ``add_passthru`` methods:

.. code-block:: python

    import responses


    @responses.activate
    def test_my_api():
        responses.add_passthru("https://percy.io")

This will allow any requests matching that prefix, that is otherwise not
registered as a mock response, to passthru using the standard behavior.

Pass through endpoints can be configured with regex patterns if you
need to allow an entire domain or path subtree to send requests:

.. code-block:: python

    responses.add_passthru(re.compile("https://percy.io/\\w+"))


Lastly, you can use the ``passthrough`` argument of the ``Response`` object
to force a response to behave as a pass through.

.. code-block:: python

    # Enable passthrough for a single response
    response = Response(
        responses.GET,
        "http://example.com",
        body="not used",
        passthrough=True,
    )
    responses.add(response)

    # Use PassthroughResponse
    response = PassthroughResponse(responses.GET, "http://example.com")
    responses.add(response)

Viewing/Modifying registered responses
--------------------------------------

Registered responses are available as a public method of the RequestMock
instance. It is sometimes useful for debugging purposes to view the stack of
registered responses which can be accessed via ``responses.registered()``.

The ``replace`` function allows a previously registered ``response`` to be
changed. The method signature is identical to ``add``. ``response`` s are
identified using ``method`` and ``url``. Only the first matched ``response`` is
replaced.

.. code-block:: python

    import responses
    import requests


    @responses.activate
    def test_replace():
        responses.get("http://example.org", json={"data": 1})
        responses.replace(responses.GET, "http://example.org", json={"data": 2})

        resp = requests.get("http://example.org")

        assert resp.json() == {"data": 2}


The ``upsert`` function allows a previously registered ``response`` to be
changed like ``replace``. If the response is registered, the ``upsert`` function
will registered it like ``add``.

``remove`` takes a ``method`` and ``url`` argument and will remove **all**
matched responses from the registered list.

Finally, ``reset`` will reset all registered responses.

Coroutines and Multithreading
-----------------------------

``responses`` supports both Coroutines and Multithreading out of the box.
Note, ``responses`` locks threading on ``RequestMock`` object allowing only
single thread to access it.

.. code-block:: python

    async def test_async_calls():
        @responses.activate
        async def run():
            responses.get(
                "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar",
                json={"error": "not found"},
                status=404,
            )

            resp = requests.get("http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar")
            assert resp.json() == {"error": "not found"}
            assert responses.calls[0].request.url == "http://twitter.com/api/1/foobar"

        await run()


Contributing
------------

Environment Configuration
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Responses uses several linting and autoformatting utilities, so it's important that when
submitting patches you use the appropriate toolchain:

Clone the repository:

.. code-block:: shell

    git clone https://github.com/getsentry/responses.git

Create an environment (e.g. with ``virtualenv``):

.. code-block:: shell

    virtualenv .env && source .env/bin/activate

Configure development requirements:

.. code-block:: shell

    make develop


Tests and Code Quality Validation
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

The easiest way to validate your code is to run tests via ``tox``.
Current ``tox`` configuration runs the same checks that are used in
GitHub Actions CI/CD pipeline.

Please execute the following command line from the project root to validate
your code against:

* Unit tests in all Python versions that are supported by this project
* Type validation via ``mypy``
* All ``pre-commit`` hooks

.. code-block:: shell

    tox

Alternatively, you can always run a single test. See documentation below.

Unit tests
""""""""""

Responses uses `Pytest <https://docs.pytest.org/en/latest/>`_ for
testing. You can run all tests by:

.. code-block:: shell

    tox -e py37
    tox -e py310

OR manually activate required version of Python and run

.. code-block:: shell

    pytest

And run a single test by:

.. code-block:: shell

    pytest -k '<test_function_name>'

Type Validation
"""""""""""""""

To verify ``type`` compliance, run `mypy <https://github.com/python/mypy>`_ linter:

.. code-block:: shell

    tox -e mypy

OR

.. code-block:: shell

    mypy --config-file=./mypy.ini -p responses

Code Quality and Style
""""""""""""""""""""""

To check code style and reformat it run:

.. code-block:: shell

    tox -e precom

OR

.. code-block:: shell

    pre-commit run --all-files


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