This is the official Go SDK for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure
Refer to https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/README.md#installing for installation instructions.
Refer to https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/README.md#configuring for configuration instructions.
The following example shows how to get started with the SDK. The example belows creates an identityClient
struct with the default configuration. It then utilizes the identityClient to list availability domains and prints
them out to stdout
More examples can be found in the SDK Github repo: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/tree/master/example
Optional fields are represented with the `mandatory:"false"` tag on input structs. The SDK will omit all optional fields that are nil when making requests.
In the case of enum-type fields, the SDK will omit fields whose value is an empty string.
The SDK uses pointers for primitive types in many input structs. To aid in the construction of such structs, the SDK provides
functions that return a pointer for a given value. For example:
Dedicated endpoints are the endpoint templates defined by the service for a specific realm at client level. OCI Go SDK
allows you to enable the use of these realm-specific endpoint templates feature at application level and at client level.
The value set at client level takes precedence over the value set at the application level. This feature is disabled by default.
For reference, please refer https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_objectstorage_test.go#L222-L251
The SDK exposes functionality that allows the user to customize any http request before is sent to the service.
You can do so by setting the `Interceptor` field in any of the `Client` structs. For example:
The Interceptor closure gets called before the signing process, thus any changes done to the request will be properly
signed and submitted to the service.
The SDK exposes a stand-alone signer that can be used to signing custom requests. Related code can be found here:
The example below shows how to create a default signer.
The signer also allows more granular control on the headers used for signing. For example:
You can combine a custom signer with the exposed clients in the SDK.
This allows you to add custom signed headers to the request. Following is an example:
Bear in mind that some services have a white list of headers that it expects to be signed.
Therefore, adding an arbitrary header can result in authentications errors.
To see a runnable example, see https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_identity_test.go
For more information on the signing algorithm refer to: https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/Content/API/Concepts/signingrequests.htm
Some operations accept or return polymorphic JSON objects. The SDK models such objects as interfaces. Further the SDK provides
structs that implement such interfaces. Thus, for all operations that expect interfaces as input, pass the struct in the SDK that satisfies
such interface. For example:
In the case of a polymorphic response you can type assert the interface to the expected type. For example:
An example of polymorphic JSON request handling can be found here: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_core_test.go#L63
When calling a list operation, the operation will retrieve a page of results. To retrieve more data, call the list operation again,
passing in the value of the most recent response's OpcNextPage as the value of Page in the next list operation call.
When there is no more data the OpcNextPage field will be nil. An example of pagination using this logic can be found here: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_core_pagination_test.go
The SDK has a built-in logging mechanism used internally. The internal logging logic is used to record the raw http
requests, responses and potential errors when (un)marshalling request and responses.
Built-in logging in the SDK is controlled via the environment variable "OCI_GO_SDK_DEBUG" and its contents. The below are possible values for the "OCI_GO_SDK_DEBUG" variable
1. "info" or "i" enables all info logging messages
2. "debug" or "d" enables all debug and info logging messages
3. "verbose" or "v" or "1" enables all verbose, debug and info logging messages
4. "null" turns all logging messages off.
If the value of the environment variable does not match any of the above then default logging level is "info".
If the environment variable is not present then no logging messages are emitted.
You can also enable logs by code. For example
This way you enable debug logs by code.
The default destination for logging is Stderr and if you want to output log to a file you can set via environment variable "OCI_GO_SDK_LOG_OUTPUT_MODE". The below are possible values
1. "file" or "f" enables all logging output saved to file
2. "combine" or "c" enables all logging output to both stderr and file
You can also customize the log file location and name via "OCI_GO_SDK_LOG_FILE" environment variable, the value should be the path to a specific file
If this environment variable is not present, the default location will be the project root path
Sometimes you may need to wait until an attribute of a resource, such as an instance or a VCN, reaches a certain state.
An example of this would be launching an instance and then waiting for the instance to become available, or waiting until a subnet in a VCN has been terminated.
You might also want to retry the same operation again if there's network issue etc...
This can be accomplished by using the RequestMetadata.RetryPolicy(request level configuration), alternatively, global(all services) or client level RetryPolicy configration is also possible.
You can find the examples here: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_retry_test.go
If you are trying to make a PUT/POST API call with binary request body, please make sure the binary request body is resettable, which means the request body should inherit Seeker interface.
The Retry behavior Precedence (Highest to lowest) is defined as below:-
The OCI Go SDK defines a default retry policy that retries on the errors suitable for retries (see https://docs.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/API/References/apierrors.htm),
for a recommended period of time (up to 7 attempts spread out over at most approximately 1.5 minutes). The default retry policy is defined by :
Default Retry-able Errors
Below is the list of default retry-able errors for which retry attempts should be made.
The following errors should be retried (with backoff).
HTTP Code Customer-facing Error Code
Apart from the above errors, retries should also be attempted in the following Client Side errors :
1. HTTP Connection timeout
2. Request Connection Errors
3. Request Exceptions
4. Other timeouts (like Read Timeout)
The above errors can be avoided through retrying and hence, are classified as the default retry-able errors.
Additionally, retries should also be made for Circuit Breaker exceptions (Exceptions raised by Circuit Breaker in an open state)
Default Termination Strategy
The termination strategy defines when SDKs should stop attempting to retry. In other words, it's the deadline for retries.
The OCI SDKs should stop retrying the operation after 7 retry attempts. This means the SDKs will have retried for ~98 seconds or ~1.5 minutes have elapsed due to total delays. SDKs will make a total of 8 attempts. (1 initial request + 7 retries)
Default Delay Strategy
Default Delay Strategy - The delay strategy defines the amount of time to wait between each of the retry attempts.
The default delay strategy chosen for the SDK – Exponential backoff with jitter, using:
1. The base time to use in retry calculations will be 1 second
2. An exponent of 2. When calculating the next retry time, the SDK will raise this to the power of the number of attempts
3. A maximum wait time between calls of 30 seconds (Capped)
4. Added jitter value between 0-1000 milliseconds to spread out the requests
Configure and use default retry policy
You can set this retry policy for a single request:
or for all requests made by a client:
or for all requests made by all clients:
or setting default retry via environment varaible, which is a global switch for all services:
Some services enable retry for operations by default, this can be overridden using any alternatives mentioned above. To know which service operations have retries enabled by default,
look at the operation's description in the SDK - it will say whether that it has retries enabled by default
Some resources may have to be replicated across regions and are only eventually consistent. That means the request to create, update, or delete the resource succeeded,
but the resource is not available everywhere immediately. Creating, updating, or deleting any resource in the Identity service is affected by eventual consistency, and
doing so may cause other operations in other services to fail until the Identity resource has been replicated.
For example, the request to CreateTag in the Identity service in the home region succeeds, but immediately using that created tag in another region in a request to
LaunchInstance in the Compute service may fail.
If you are creating, updating, or deleting resources in the Identity service, we recommend using an eventually consistent retry policy for any service you access. The
default retry policy already deals with eventual consistency. Example:
This retry policy will use a different strategy if an eventually consistent change was made in the recent past (called the "eventually consistent window", currently
defined to be 4 minutes after the eventually consistent change). This special retry policy for eventual consistency will:
1. make up to 9 attempts (including the initial attempt); if an attempt is successful, no more attempts will be made
2. retry at most until (a) approximately the end of the eventually consistent window or (b) the end of the default retry period of about 1.5 minutes, whichever is
farther in the future; if an attempt is successful, no more attempts will be made, and the OCI Go SDK will not wait any longer
3. retry on the error codes 400-RelatedResourceNotAuthorizedOrNotFound, 404-NotAuthorizedOrNotFound, and 409-NotAuthorizedOrResourceAlreadyExists, for which the
default retry policy does not retry, in addition to the errors the default retry policy retries on (see https://docs.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/Content/API/References/apierrors.htm)
If there were no eventually consistent actions within the recent past, then this special retry strategy is not used.
If you want a retry policy that does not handle eventual consistency in a special way, for example because you retry on all error responses, you can use
DefaultRetryPolicyWithoutEventualConsistency or NewRetryPolicyWithOptions with the common.ReplaceWithValuesFromRetryPolicy(common.DefaultRetryPolicyWithoutEventualConsistency()) option:
The NewRetryPolicy function also creates a retry policy without eventual consistency.
Circuit Breaker can prevent an application repeatedly trying to execute an operation that is likely to fail, allowing it to continue without waiting for the fault to be rectified or wasting CPU cycles,
of course, it also enables an application to detect whether the fault has been resolved. If the problem appears to have been rectified, the application can attempt to invoke the operation.
Go SDK intergrates sony/gobreaker solution, wraps in a circuit breaker object, which monitors for failures. Once the failures reach a certain threshold, the circuit breaker trips,
and all further calls to the circuit breaker return with an error, this also saves the service from being overwhelmed with network calls in case of an outage.
Circuit Breaker Configuration Definitions
1. Failure Rate Threshold - The state of the CircuitBreaker changes from CLOSED to OPEN when the failure rate is equal or greater than a configurable threshold. For example when more than 50% of the recorded calls have failed.
2. Reset Timeout - The timeout after which an open circuit breaker will attempt a request if a request is made
3. Failure Exceptions - The list of Exceptions that will be regarded as failures for the circuit.
4. Minimum number of calls/ Volume threshold - Configures the minimum number of calls which are required (per sliding window period) before the CircuitBreaker can calculate the error rate.
1. Failure Rate Threshold - 80% - This means when 80% of the requests calculated for a time window of 120 seconds have failed then the circuit will transition from closed to open.
2. Minimum number of calls/ Volume threshold - A value of 10, for the above defined time window of 120 seconds.
3. Reset Timeout - 30 seconds to wait before setting the breaker to halfOpen state, and trying the action again.
4. Failure Exceptions - The failures for the circuit will only be recorded for the retryable/transient exceptions. This means only the following exceptions will be regarded as failure for the circuit.
HTTP Code Customer-facing Error Code
Apart from the above, the following client side exceptions will also be treated as a failure for the circuit :
1. HTTP Connection timeout
2. Request Connection Errors
3. Request Exceptions
4. Other timeouts (like Read Timeout)
Go SDK enable circuit breaker with default configuration for most of the service clients, if you don't want to enable the solution, can disable the functionality before your application running
Go SDK also supports customize Circuit Breaker with specified configurations. You can find the examples here: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_circuitbreaker_test.go
To know which service clients have circuit breakers enabled, look at the service client's description in the SDK - it will say whether that it has circuit breakers enabled by default
The GO SDK uses the net/http package to make calls to OCI services. If your environment requires you to use a proxy server for outgoing HTTP requests
then you can set this up in the following ways:
1. Configuring environment variable as described here https://golang.org/pkg/net/http/#ProxyFromEnvironment
2. Modifying the underlying Transport struct for a service client
In order to modify the underlying Transport struct in HttpClient, you can do something similar to (sample code for audit service client):
The Object Storage service supports multipart uploads to make large object uploads easier by splitting the large object into parts. The Go SDK supports raw multipart upload operations for advanced use cases, as well as a higher level upload class that uses the multipart upload APIs. For links to the APIs used for multipart upload operations, see Managing Multipart Uploads (https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/iaas/Content/Object/Tasks/usingmultipartuploads.htm). Higher level multipart uploads are implemented using the UploadManager, which will: split a large object into parts for you, upload the parts in parallel, and then recombine and commit the parts as a single object in storage.
This code sample shows how to use the UploadManager to automatically split an object into parts for upload to simplify interaction with the Object Storage service: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/example/example_objectstorage_test.go
Some response fields are enum-typed. In the future, individual services may return values not covered by existing enums
for that field. To address this possibility, every enum-type response field is a modeled as a type that supports any string.
Thus if a service returns a value that is not recognized by your version of the SDK, then the response field will be set to this value.
When individual services return a polymorphic JSON response not available as a concrete struct, the SDK will return an implementation that only satisfies
the interface modeling the polymorphic JSON response.
If you are using a version of the SDK released prior to the announcement of a new region, you may need to use a workaround to reach it, depending on whether the region is in the oraclecloud.com realm.
A region is a localized geographic area. For more information on regions and how to identify them, see Regions and Availability Domains(https://docs.cloud.oracle.com/iaas/Content/General/Concepts/regions.htm).
A realm is a set of regions that share entities. You can identify your realm by looking at the domain name at the end of the network address. For example, the realm for xyz.abc.123.oraclecloud.com is oraclecloud.com.
oraclecloud.com Realm: For regions in the oraclecloud.com realm, even if common.Region does not contain the new region, the forward compatibility of the SDK can automatically handle it. You can pass new region names just as you would pass ones that are already defined. For more information on passing region names in the configuration, see Configuring (https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/README.md#configuring). For details on common.Region, see (https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/common/common.go).
Other Realms: For regions in realms other than oraclecloud.com, you can use the following workarounds to reach new regions with earlier versions of the SDK.
NOTE: Be sure to supply the appropriate endpoints for your region.
You can overwrite the target host with client.Host:
If you are authenticating via instance principals, you can set the authentication endpoint in an environment variable:
Got a fix for a bug, or a new feature you'd like to contribute? The SDK is open source and accepting pull requests on GitHub
Licensing information available at: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/blob/master/LICENSE.txt
To be notified when a new version of the Go SDK is released, subscribe to the following feed: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk/releases.atom
Please refer to this link: https://github.com/oracle/oci-go-sdk#help