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Package dns implements a full featured interface to the Domain Name System. Both server- and client-side programming is supported. The package allows complete control over what is sent out to the DNS. The API follows the less-is-more principle, by presenting a small, clean interface. It supports (asynchronous) querying/replying, incoming/outgoing zone transfers, TSIG, EDNS0, dynamic updates, notifies and DNSSEC validation/signing. Note that domain names MUST be fully qualified before sending them, unqualified names in a message will result in a packing failure. Resource records are native types. They are not stored in wire format. Basic usage pattern for creating a new resource record: Or directly from a string: Or when the default origin (.) and TTL (3600) and class (IN) suit you: Or even: In the DNS messages are exchanged, these messages contain resource records (sets). Use pattern for creating a message: Or when not certain if the domain name is fully qualified: The message m is now a message with the question section set to ask the MX records for the miek.nl. zone. The following is slightly more verbose, but more flexible: After creating a message it can be sent. Basic use pattern for synchronous querying the DNS at a server configured on 127.0.0.1 and port 53: Suppressing multiple outstanding queries (with the same question, type and class) is as easy as setting: More advanced options are available using a net.Dialer and the corresponding API. For example it is possible to set a timeout, or to specify a source IP address and port to use for the connection: If these "advanced" features are not needed, a simple UDP query can be sent, with: When this functions returns you will get DNS message. A DNS message consists out of four sections. The question section: in.Question, the answer section: in.Answer, the authority section: in.Ns and the additional section: in.Extra. Each of these sections (except the Question section) contain a []RR. Basic use pattern for accessing the rdata of a TXT RR as the first RR in the Answer section: Both domain names and TXT character strings are converted to presentation form both when unpacked and when converted to strings. For TXT character strings, tabs, carriage returns and line feeds will be converted to \t, \r and \n respectively. Back slashes and quotations marks will be escaped. Bytes below 32 and above 127 will be converted to \DDD form. For domain names, in addition to the above rules brackets, periods, spaces, semicolons and the at symbol are escaped. DNSSEC (DNS Security Extension) adds a layer of security to the DNS. It uses public key cryptography to sign resource records. The public keys are stored in DNSKEY records and the signatures in RRSIG records. Requesting DNSSEC information for a zone is done by adding the DO (DNSSEC OK) bit to a request. Signature generation, signature verification and key generation are all supported. Dynamic updates reuses the DNS message format, but renames three of the sections. Question is Zone, Answer is Prerequisite, Authority is Update, only the Additional is not renamed. See RFC 2136 for the gory details. You can set a rather complex set of rules for the existence of absence of certain resource records or names in a zone to specify if resource records should be added or removed. The table from RFC 2136 supplemented with the Go DNS function shows which functions exist to specify the prerequisites. The prerequisite section can also be left empty. If you have decided on the prerequisites you can tell what RRs should be added or deleted. The next table shows the options you have and what functions to call. An TSIG or transaction signature adds a HMAC TSIG record to each message sent. The supported algorithms include: HmacSHA1, HmacSHA256 and HmacSHA512. Basic use pattern when querying with a TSIG name "axfr." (note that these key names must be fully qualified - as they are domain names) and the base64 secret "so6ZGir4GPAqINNh9U5c3A==": If an incoming message contains a TSIG record it MUST be the last record in the additional section (RFC2845 3.2). This means that you should make the call to SetTsig last, right before executing the query. If you make any changes to the RRset after calling SetTsig() the signature will be incorrect. When requesting an zone transfer (almost all TSIG usage is when requesting zone transfers), with TSIG, this is the basic use pattern. In this example we request an AXFR for miek.nl. with TSIG key named "axfr." and secret "so6ZGir4GPAqINNh9U5c3A==" and using the server 176.58.119.54: You can now read the records from the transfer as they come in. Each envelope is checked with TSIG. If something is not correct an error is returned. A custom TSIG implementation can be used. This requires additional code to perform any session establishment and signature generation/verification. The client must be configured with an implementation of the TsigProvider interface: Basic use pattern validating and replying to a message that has TSIG set. RFC 6895 sets aside a range of type codes for private use. This range is 65,280 - 65,534 (0xFF00 - 0xFFFE). When experimenting with new Resource Records these can be used, before requesting an official type code from IANA. See https://miek.nl/2014/september/21/idn-and-private-rr-in-go-dns/ for more information. EDNS0 is an extension mechanism for the DNS defined in RFC 2671 and updated by RFC 6891. It defines a new RR type, the OPT RR, which is then completely abused. Basic use pattern for creating an (empty) OPT RR: The rdata of an OPT RR consists out of a slice of EDNS0 (RFC 6891) interfaces. Currently only a few have been standardized: EDNS0_NSID (RFC 5001) and EDNS0_SUBNET (RFC 7871). Note that these options may be combined in an OPT RR. Basic use pattern for a server to check if (and which) options are set: SIG(0) From RFC 2931: It works like TSIG, except that SIG(0) uses public key cryptography, instead of the shared secret approach in TSIG. Supported algorithms: ECDSAP256SHA256, ECDSAP384SHA384, RSASHA1, RSASHA256 and RSASHA512. Signing subsequent messages in multi-message sessions is not implemented.


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Build Status Code Coverage Go Report Card

Alternative (more granular) approach to a DNS library

Less is more.

Complete and usable DNS library. All Resource Records are supported, including the DNSSEC types. It follows a lean and mean philosophy. If there is stuff you should know as a DNS programmer there isn't a convenience function for it. Server side and client side programming is supported, i.e. you can build servers and resolvers with it.

We try to keep the "master" branch as sane as possible and at the bleeding edge of standards, avoiding breaking changes wherever reasonable. We support the last two versions of Go.

Goals

  • KISS;
  • Fast;
  • Small API. If it's easy to code in Go, don't make a function for it.

Users

A not-so-up-to-date-list-that-may-be-actually-current:

Send pull request if you want to be listed here.

Features

  • UDP/TCP queries, IPv4 and IPv6
  • RFC 1035 zone file parsing ($INCLUDE, $ORIGIN, $TTL and $GENERATE (for all record types) are supported
  • Fast
  • Server side programming (mimicking the net/http package)
  • Client side programming
  • DNSSEC: signing, validating and key generation for DSA, RSA, ECDSA and Ed25519
  • EDNS0, NSID, Cookies
  • AXFR/IXFR
  • TSIG, SIG(0)
  • DNS over TLS (DoT): encrypted connection between client and server over TCP
  • DNS name compression

Have fun!

Miek Gieben - 2010-2012 - miek@miek.nl DNS Authors 2012-

Building

This library uses Go modules and uses semantic versioning. Building is done with the go tool, so the following should work:

go get github.com/miekg/dns
go build github.com/miekg/dns

Examples

A short "how to use the API" is at the beginning of doc.go (this also will show when you call godoc github.com/miekg/dns).

Example programs can be found in the github.com/miekg/exdns repository.

Supported RFCs

all of them

  • 103{4,5} - DNS standard
  • 1183 - ISDN, X25 and other deprecated records
  • 1348 - NSAP record (removed the record)
  • 1982 - Serial Arithmetic
  • 1876 - LOC record
  • 1995 - IXFR
  • 1996 - DNS notify
  • 2136 - DNS Update (dynamic updates)
  • 2181 - RRset definition - there is no RRset type though, just []RR
  • 2537 - RSAMD5 DNS keys
  • 2065 - DNSSEC (updated in later RFCs)
  • 2671 - EDNS record
  • 2782 - SRV record
  • 2845 - TSIG record
  • 2915 - NAPTR record
  • 2929 - DNS IANA Considerations
  • 3110 - RSASHA1 DNS keys
  • 3123 - APL record
  • 3225 - DO bit (DNSSEC OK)
  • 340{1,2,3} - NAPTR record
  • 3445 - Limiting the scope of (DNS)KEY
  • 3597 - Unknown RRs
  • 4025 - A Method for Storing IPsec Keying Material in DNS
  • 403{3,4,5} - DNSSEC + validation functions
  • 4255 - SSHFP record
  • 4343 - Case insensitivity
  • 4408 - SPF record
  • 4509 - SHA256 Hash in DS
  • 4592 - Wildcards in the DNS
  • 4635 - HMAC SHA TSIG
  • 4701 - DHCID
  • 4892 - id.server
  • 5001 - NSID
  • 5155 - NSEC3 record
  • 5205 - HIP record
  • 5702 - SHA2 in the DNS
  • 5936 - AXFR
  • 5966 - TCP implementation recommendations
  • 6605 - ECDSA
  • 6725 - IANA Registry Update
  • 6742 - ILNP DNS
  • 6840 - Clarifications and Implementation Notes for DNS Security
  • 6844 - CAA record
  • 6891 - EDNS0 update
  • 6895 - DNS IANA considerations
  • 6944 - DNSSEC DNSKEY Algorithm Status
  • 6975 - Algorithm Understanding in DNSSEC
  • 7043 - EUI48/EUI64 records
  • 7314 - DNS (EDNS) EXPIRE Option
  • 7477 - CSYNC RR
  • 7828 - edns-tcp-keepalive EDNS0 Option
  • 7553 - URI record
  • 7858 - DNS over TLS: Initiation and Performance Considerations
  • 7871 - EDNS0 Client Subnet
  • 7873 - Domain Name System (DNS) Cookies
  • 8080 - EdDSA for DNSSEC
  • 8499 - DNS Terminology
  • 8659 - DNS Certification Authority Authorization (CAA) Resource Record
  • 8777 - DNS Reverse IP Automatic Multicast Tunneling (AMT) Discovery
  • 8914 - Extended DNS Errors
  • 8976 - Message Digest for DNS Zones (ZONEMD RR)

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Last updated on 18 Jan 2024

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