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    sshpk

A library for finding and using SSH public keys


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Package description

What is sshpk?

The sshpk npm package is a tool for parsing and generating SSH public and private keys. It supports various key types, including RSA, DSA, ECDSA, and Ed25519. It can also handle certificate formats such as SSH, X.509, and others. The package is useful for applications that need to manage or interact with SSH keys and certificates.

What are sshpk's main functionalities?

Parsing SSH keys

This feature allows you to parse SSH public keys from strings or files. The code sample demonstrates how to read an SSH public key from a file and parse it using sshpk.

const sshpk = require('sshpk');
const fs = require('fs');

const keyData = fs.readFileSync('path/to/ssh/key.pub', 'utf-8');
const key = sshpk.parseKey(keyData, 'ssh');

Generating SSH keys

This feature enables the generation of new SSH keys. The code sample shows how to generate a new RSA key with a 2048-bit length.

const sshpk = require('sshpk');

const key = sshpk.generateKey('rsa', 2048);

Converting keys to different formats

This feature allows you to convert SSH keys to different formats, such as PEM. The code sample demonstrates how to parse an SSH key and then convert it to PEM format.

const sshpk = require('sshpk');
const fs = require('fs');

const keyData = fs.readFileSync('path/to/ssh/key.pub', 'utf-8');
const key = sshpk.parseKey(keyData, 'ssh');
const pemKey = key.toBuffer('pem');

Fingerprinting keys

This feature is used to generate a fingerprint of an SSH key, which can be used for verifying identity. The code sample shows how to parse an SSH key and generate its fingerprint using SHA-256.

const sshpk = require('sshpk');
const fs = require('fs');

const keyData = fs.readFileSync('path/to/ssh/key.pub', 'utf-8');
const key = sshpk.parseKey(keyData, 'ssh');
const fingerprint = key.fingerprint('sha256').toString();

Other packages similar to sshpk

Readme

Source

sshpk

Parse, convert, fingerprint and use SSH keys (both public and private) in pure node -- no ssh-keygen or other external dependencies.

Supports RSA, DSA, ECDSA (nistp-*) and ED25519 key types, in PEM (PKCS#1, PKCS#8) and OpenSSH formats.

This library has been extracted from node-http-signature (work by Mark Cavage and Dave Eddy) and node-ssh-fingerprint (work by Dave Eddy), with additions (including ECDSA support) by Alex Wilson.

Install

npm install sshpk

Examples

var sshpk = require('sshpk');

var fs = require('fs');

/* Read in an OpenSSH-format public key */
var keyPub = fs.readFileSync('id_rsa.pub');
var key = sshpk.parseKey(keyPub, 'ssh');

/* Get metadata about the key */
console.log('type => %s', key.type);
console.log('size => %d bits', key.size);
console.log('comment => %s', key.comment);

/* Compute key fingerprints, in new OpenSSH (>6.7) format, and old MD5 */
console.log('fingerprint => %s', key.fingerprint().toString());
console.log('old-style fingerprint => %s', key.fingerprint('md5').toString());

Example output:

type => rsa
size => 2048 bits
comment => foo@foo.com
fingerprint => SHA256:PYC9kPVC6J873CSIbfp0LwYeczP/W4ffObNCuDJ1u5w
old-style fingerprint => a0:c8:ad:6c:32:9a:32:fa:59:cc:a9:8c:0a:0d:6e:bd

More examples: converting between formats:

/* Read in a PEM public key */
var keyPem = fs.readFileSync('id_rsa.pem');
var key = sshpk.parseKey(keyPem, 'pem');

/* Convert to PEM PKCS#8 public key format */
var pemBuf = key.toBuffer('pkcs8');

/* Convert to SSH public key format (and return as a string) */
var sshKey = key.toString('ssh');

Signing and verifying:

/* Read in an OpenSSH/PEM *private* key */
var keyPriv = fs.readFileSync('id_ecdsa');
var key = sshpk.parsePrivateKey(keyPriv, 'pem');

var data = 'some data';

/* Sign some data with the key */
var s = key.createSign('sha1');
s.update(data);
var signature = s.sign();

/* Now load the public key (could also use just key.toPublic()) */
var keyPub = fs.readFileSync('id_ecdsa.pub');
key = sshpk.parseKey(keyPub, 'ssh');

/* Make a crypto.Verifier with this key */
var v = key.createVerify('sha1');
v.update(data);
var valid = v.verify(signature);
/* => true! */

Matching fingerprints with keys:

var fp = sshpk.parseFingerprint('SHA256:PYC9kPVC6J873CSIbfp0LwYeczP/W4ffObNCuDJ1u5w');

var keys = [sshpk.parseKey(...), sshpk.parseKey(...), ...];

keys.forEach(function (key) {
	if (fp.matches(key))
		console.log('found it!');
});

Usage

Public keys

parseKey(data[, format = 'auto'[, name]])

Parses a key from a given data format and returns a new Key object.

Parameters

  • data -- Either a Buffer or String, containing the key
  • format -- String name of format to use, valid options are:
    • auto: choose automatically from all below
    • pem: supports both PKCS#1 and PKCS#8
    • ssh: standard OpenSSH format,
    • pkcs1, pkcs8: variants of pem
    • rfc4253: raw OpenSSH wire format
    • openssh: new post-OpenSSH 6.5 internal format, produced by ssh-keygen -o
  • name -- Optional name for the key being parsed (eg. the filename that was opened). Used to generate Error messages

Key.isKey(obj)

Returns true if the given object is a valid Key object created by a version of sshpk compatible with this one.

Parameters

  • obj -- Object to identify

Key#type

String, the type of key. Valid options are rsa, dsa, ecdsa.

Key#size

Integer, "size" of the key in bits. For RSA/DSA this is the size of the modulus; for ECDSA this is the bit size of the curve in use.

Key#comment

Optional string, a key comment used by some formats (eg the ssh format).

Key#curve

Only present if this.type === 'ecdsa', string containing the name of the named curve used with this key. Possible values include nistp256, nistp384 and nistp521.

Key#toBuffer([format = 'ssh'])

Convert the key into a given data format and return the serialized key as a Buffer.

Parameters

  • format -- String name of format to use, for valid options see parseKey()

Key#toString([format = 'ssh])

Same as this.toBuffer(format).toString().

Key#fingerprint([algorithm = 'sha256'])

Creates a new Fingerprint object representing this Key's fingerprint.

Parameters

  • algorithm -- String name of hash algorithm to use, valid options are md5, sha1, sha256, sha384, sha512

Key#createVerify([hashAlgorithm])

Creates a crypto.Verifier specialized to use this Key (and the correct public key algorithm to match it). The returned Verifier has the same API as a regular one, except that the verify() function takes only the target signature as an argument.

Parameters

  • hashAlgorithm -- optional String name of hash algorithm to use, any supported by OpenSSL are valid, usually including sha1, sha256.

v.verify(signature[, format]) Parameters

  • signature -- either a Signature object, or a Buffer or String
  • format -- optional String, name of format to interpret given String with. Not valid if signature is a Signature or Buffer.

Key#createDiffieHellman()

Key#createDH()

Creates a Diffie-Hellman key exchange object initialized with this key and all necessary parameters. This has the same API as a crypto.DiffieHellman instance, except that functions take Key and PrivateKey objects as arguments, and return them where indicated for.

This is only valid for keys belonging to a cryptosystem that supports DHE or a close analogue (i.e. dsa, ecdsa and curve25519 keys). An attempt to call this function on other keys will yield an Error.

Private keys

parsePrivateKey(data[, format = 'auto'[, name]])

Parses a private key from a given data format and returns a new PrivateKey object.

Parameters

  • data -- Either a Buffer or String, containing the key
  • format -- String name of format to use, valid options are:
    • auto: choose automatically from all below
    • pem: supports both PKCS#1 and PKCS#8
    • ssh, openssh: new post-OpenSSH 6.5 internal format, produced by ssh-keygen -o
    • pkcs1, pkcs8: variants of pem
    • rfc4253: raw OpenSSH wire format
  • name -- Optional name for the key being parsed (eg. the filename that was opened). Used to generate Error messages

PrivateKey.isPrivateKey(obj)

Returns true if the given object is a valid PrivateKey object created by a version of sshpk compatible with this one.

Parameters

  • obj -- Object to identify

PrivateKey#type

String, the type of key. Valid options are rsa, dsa, ecdsa.

PrivateKey#size

Integer, "size" of the key in bits. For RSA/DSA this is the size of the modulus; for ECDSA this is the bit size of the curve in use.

PrivateKey#curve

Only present if this.type === 'ecdsa', string containing the name of the named curve used with this key. Possible values include nistp256, nistp384 and nistp521.

PrivateKey#toBuffer([format = 'pkcs1'])

Convert the key into a given data format and return the serialized key as a Buffer.

Parameters

  • format -- String name of format to use, valid options are listed under parsePrivateKey. Note that ED25519 keys default to openssh format instead (as they have no pkcs1 representation).

PrivateKey#toString([format = 'pkcs1'])

Same as this.toBuffer(format).toString().

PrivateKey#toPublic()

Extract just the public part of this private key, and return it as a Key object.

PrivateKey#fingerprint([algorithm = 'sha256'])

Same as this.toPublic().fingerprint().

PrivateKey#createVerify([hashAlgorithm])

Same as this.toPublic().createVerify().

PrivateKey#createSign([hashAlgorithm])

Creates a crypto.Sign specialized to use this PrivateKey (and the correct key algorithm to match it). The returned Signer has the same API as a regular one, except that the sign() function takes no arguments, and returns a Signature object.

Parameters

  • hashAlgorithm -- optional String name of hash algorithm to use, any supported by OpenSSL are valid, usually including sha1, sha256.

v.sign() Parameters

  • none

PrivateKey#derive(newType)

Derives a related key of type newType from this key. Currently this is only supported to change between ed25519 and curve25519 keys which are stored with the same private key (but usually distinct public keys in order to avoid degenerate keys that lead to a weak Diffie-Hellman exchange).

Parameters

  • newType -- String, type of key to derive, either ed25519 or curve25519

Fingerprints

parseFingerprint(fingerprint[, algorithms])

Pre-parses a fingerprint, creating a Fingerprint object that can be used to quickly locate a key by using the Fingerprint#matches function.

Parameters

  • fingerprint -- String, the fingerprint value, in any supported format
  • algorithms -- Optional list of strings, names of hash algorithms to limit support to. If fingerprint uses a hash algorithm not on this list, throws InvalidAlgorithmError.

Fingerprint.isFingerprint(obj)

Returns true if the given object is a valid Fingerprint object created by a version of sshpk compatible with this one.

Parameters

  • obj -- Object to identify

Fingerprint#toString([format])

Returns a fingerprint as a string, in the given format.

Parameters

  • format -- Optional String, format to use, valid options are hex and base64. If this Fingerprint uses the md5 algorithm, the default format is hex. Otherwise, the default is base64.

Fingerprint#matches(key)

Verifies whether or not this Fingerprint matches a given Key. This function uses double-hashing to avoid leaking timing information. Returns a boolean.

Parameters

  • key -- a Key object, the key to match this fingerprint against

Signatures

parseSignature(signature, algorithm, format)

Parses a signature in a given format, creating a Signature object. Useful for converting between the SSH and ASN.1 (PKCS/OpenSSL) signature formats, and also returned as output from PrivateKey#createSign().sign().

A Signature object can also be passed to a verifier produced by Key#createVerify() and it will automatically be converted internally into the correct format for verification.

Parameters

  • signature -- a Buffer (binary) or String (base64), data of the actual signature in the given format
  • algorithm -- a String, name of the algorithm to be used, possible values are rsa, dsa, ecdsa
  • format -- a String, either asn1 or ssh

Signature.isSignature(obj)

Returns true if the given object is a valid Signature object created by a version of sshpk compatible with this one.

Parameters

  • obj -- Object to identify

Signature#toBuffer([format = 'asn1'])

Converts a Signature to the given format and returns it as a Buffer.

Parameters

  • format -- a String, either asn1 or ssh

Signature#toString([format = 'asn1'])

Same as this.toBuffer(format).toString('base64').

Errors

InvalidAlgorithmError

The specified algorithm is not valid, either because it is not supported, or because it was not included on a list of allowed algorithms.

Thrown by Fingerprint.parse, Key#fingerprint.

Properties

  • algorithm -- the algorithm that could not be validated

FingerprintFormatError

The fingerprint string given could not be parsed as a supported fingerprint format, or the specified fingerprint format is invalid.

Thrown by Fingerprint.parse, Fingerprint#toString.

Properties

  • fingerprint -- if caused by a fingerprint, the string value given
  • format -- if caused by an invalid format specification, the string value given

KeyParseError

The key data given could not be parsed as a valid key.

Properties

  • keyName -- name that was given to Key#parse
  • format -- the format that was trying to parse the key
  • innerErr -- the inner Error thrown by the format parser

Friends of sshpk

  • sshpk-agent is a library for speaking the ssh-agent protocol from node.js, which uses sshpk

FAQs

Last updated on 01 Dec 2015

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